Report preparation on the 2017–18 data is underway. Surveys for the 2020–21 data collection are being developed.
September 2011 – September 2023
Mathematica Policy Research
Each time the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is reauthorized there is a shift in federal policies related to K-12 schooling, including in ESEA's two core programs. Accounting for about $19 billion of $26 billion in ESEA funds in fiscal year 2020, Title I and Title II-A encourage equal access to education by providing financial assistance to schools and districts with a high percentage of students from low-income families (Title I) and by improving teacher and principal quality (Title II-A).
ESEA's latest reauthorization as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) in 2015 shifts authority over many education decisions and rules from the U.S. Department of Education (the Department) to states and localities. The new law also retains some federal requirements from prior versions of ESEA to help ensure that states focus on providing a high-quality education to disadvantaged students. How states and localities respond to this combination of flexibility and requirements will determine whether ESSA stimulates educational improvement as intended.
This study provides a national portrait of Title I and Title II-A implementation at several key time points:
National data will be collected at times that correspond to the key points described in the "Background" section. In any year, these data may include surveys of all state Title I and Title II coordinators and nationally-representative samples of districts, schools, and teachers. The evaluation also draws on existing data, such as state-level student academic proficiency that states report to the Department, state-level math and reading achievement data from the Department's National Assessment of Educational Progress, and information from ESSA state plans.
Responses to survey questions will be tabulated into descriptive statistics (such as percentages) and simple statistical tests (such as tests for differences between percentages). These tabulations provide a snapshot at each time point, as well as aggregate changes over time. The study is descriptive and not designed to estimate the impact of federal policies on state and local actions.
From a snapshot describing state and district support for evidence use in lowest-performing schools based on data collected during the 2017–18 school year (transition to ESSA):
From the first report based on data collected during the 2013–14 school year (prior to ESSA):
Additional reports and snapshots are anticipated based on the data collected during the 2017–18, 2020–21, and 2021–22 school years. The key findings will be updated when those products are released.
A snapshot, titled How States and Districts Support Evidence Use in School Improvement, was released in June 2020.
The first report, titled Implementation of Title I and II-A Program Initiatives: Results from 2013–14, was released in January 2017.
The second report, which will be based on data collected during the 2017–18 school year (to inform the transition to ESSA), is expected in 2020 and will be announced on https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/.
A restricted-use file containing de-identified data is available for the purposes of replicating study findings and secondary analysis.