Does Early Intervention Benefit Social-Emotional and Academic Development in Middle School? A Follow-up Study of INSIGHTS
Co-Principal Investigators: Meghan McCormick (MDRC), Elise Cappella and Sandra McClowry (New York University)
Purpose: Researchers will investigate whether experience with the INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament intervention in kindergarten and first grade has continued benefits for students when they are in middle school. INSIGHTS helps students, parents and teachers understand how temperament influences behavior and learning in school. In 2008, IES supported an efficacy trial of INSIGHTS with 22 high poverty urban elementary schools randomly assigned to INSIGHTS or an attention control condition (supplemental reading intervention). There were positive impacts of INSIGHTS in kindergarten and first grade on students' behavior, attention, and achievement in reading and math. To determine whether beneficial impacts of the intervention are sustained over time, the investigators will collect data from these students and their teachers in middle school.
Project Activities: The project will include a partnership between New York University (NYU), MDRC, the Research Alliance for New York City Schools, and the New York City Department of Education. The Research Alliance will provide administrative data (e.g. state test scores, discipline referrals) and the NYU and MDRC teams will collect information about these students in middle school through direct assessments and student and teacher report of academic, behavioral, and social-emotional skills.
Products: The research team will produce evidence of whether or not there is sustained beneficial impact of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament for middle school students who experienced the intervention with their teachers and parents in kindergarten and first grade. In addition, researchers will produce peer reviewed publications and the final data analysis files from the project
Setting: This study will take place in New York City.
Sample: The researchers will invite the 435 students and their families who participated in the 2008 efficacy study to participate in data collection for this follow-up study. These students will be in 6th, 7th or 8th grade. Most of these students are Black (72%) and were living in low-income households (86%) when they participated in the original efficacy trial between 2008 and 2012.
Intervention: The INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament intervention helps students, parents and teachers recognize how children differ in their reactions to stressful situations and offers strategies to help children regulate emotions and behaviors effectively based on their specific temperament. INSIGHTS provides teachers and parents with strategies to reduce children's behavior problems, support their competencies, and enhance their ability to self-regulate. For children, INISGHTS teaches strategies to learn empathy, appreciate unique qualities of others, and solve typical problems in school. The intervention uses puppets to demonstrate four empirically-derived temperament profiles: Gregory or Gretchen the Grumpy (high maintenance), Hilary or Henry the Hard Worker (industrious), Coretta or Carlos the Cautious (slow to warm up), and Fredrico or Felicity the Friendly (social/eager to try). Parents and teachers watch the puppets enact vignettes in videotapes used during parent and teacher workshops, and children interact with the puppets in their classrooms. The parent and teacher curriculum focuses on helping adults to shape their expectations and approaches to discipline based on different child temperament profiles. The student curriculum focuses on helping children develop empathy for others and strategies for resolving dilemmas both real and hypothetical.
Research Design and Methods: A group randomized trial testing the efficacy of INSIGHTS was completed from 2008 to 2012 (N = 435 students; N = 122 teachers; N = 22 schools). Twenty-two urban elementary schools serving low-income families were randomly assigned to INSIGHTS or a supplemental reading program that served as an attention control condition. In the original efficacy trial, data were collected at five time points across kindergarten and first grade in three sequential cohorts of students. There will be three sets of participants in this efficacy follow-up: students in 6th grade (Cohort 3 in the original trial), 7th grade (Cohort 2 in the original trial), and 8th grade (Cohort 1 in the original trial); their teachers in middle school; and their parents. Researchers will re-contact parents and students from all three cohorts in Year 1; collect student assessment data as well as student and teacher self-report data in Year 2; clean, merge, and analyze the data in Year 3; and disseminate the findings in Year 4.
Control Condition: Students in schools randomized to the control group in the 2008 efficacy study received a supplemental reading intervention.
Key Measures: Researchers will assess student outcomes in middle school using a combination of administrative data (standardized tests, attendance, suspensions, disciplinary referrals, and special education referrals), direct assessments (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement, Leiter International Performance Scale Revised), and surveys of students (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Children's Perceived Self-Efficacy Scales) and teachers (Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory, Student Teacher Relationship Scale).
Data Analytic Strategy: The researchers will use multilevel growth modeling to investigate the long-term impacts of INSIGHTS, whether treatment dosage or fidelity moderate the impact of the program, and whether children's long-term academic skill development is mediated by children's social-emotional development, school behavior, and short-term impacts of the INSIGHTS program in kindergarten and first grade. Related IES Projects: Testing the Efficacy of INSIGHTS in Enhancing the Academic Learning Context (R305A080512)