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Reading for Understanding Research Initiative


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FY Awards


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Understanding Malleable Cognitive Processes and Integrated Comprehension Interventions for Grades 712

Year: 2010
Name of Institution:
University of Texas, Austin
Goal: Multiple Goals
Principal Investigator:
Vaughn, Sharon
Award Amount: $20,000,000
Award Period: 5 years
Award Number: R305F100013


Purpose: The goals of this project are to (a) improve our knowledge of cognitive processes that underlie reading for understanding to identify malleable processes that may be targets of intervention, and (b) provide knowledge about the role of engagement and motivation in enhancing reading comprehension outcomes, and integrate and apply the findings from these studies to develop and test the efficacy of interventions for students with reading comprehension difficulties in grades 7–12. This work is grounded in the areas of (a) multiple components of the reading process that have been empirically related to proficient reading comprehension in these grades, (b) underlying cognitive processes involved in understanding and learning from text, and (c) motivational factors related to the active engagement of students with text. The primary foci of study are (a) examining how the representation of text is constructed in comprehenders of different skill levels; (b) exploring the relations between cognitive and linguistic processes and variance in such relations across text types, grade levels, and sources of students' reading difficulties; and (c) examining questions related to motivation and engagement in students in grades 7–12 with and without reading comprehension difficulties.

This project grounds its work in compatible and complementary models of component reading processes, cognitive processing, and motivation/engagement in reading comprehension. The theoretical models on which the project is based are the Differential and Inferential Mediation (DIME) Model of reading comprehension, the Landscape Model of text comprehension, and the Expectancy-Value Theory of motivation—expectation of success in the task and subjective value of the task. The DIME Model hypothesizes how background knowledge, strategies, inference, word reading, and vocabulary relate in predicting comprehension. The Landscape model integrates memory-based and constructionist contributions to comprehension. The Expectancy-Value Model specifies how motivation contributes to comprehension. Integrating these theoretical frameworks in the context of an empirically driven iterative approach to intervention will yield treatments that are effective, feasible, and innovative, while also providing a basis for the validation and possible extension of the distinct models. This program of research may also represent a mechanism for building new theory as elements of the contributing models are parsed, synthesized and applied to the reading processes of older students and to the instructional practices of effective teachers. School-based personnel actively participate as members of the iterative intervention development teams that systematically design and formatively refine interventions in comprehension, engagement, and motivation.

Grade Span: 7–12

School Partners: Houston area schools, Northern Florida area schools, Central Texas area schools

Basic Cognitive Studies: The initial studies in this project address a series of research questions using both latent variable modeling approaches and experimental studies and comparing the performance of poor and good comprehenders. The emphasis throughout the studies is to identify processes that may be malleable for use in the design of interventions.

More than 600 think aloud protocols have been collected to determine what text processes are involved in constructing an integrated textual representation in good and poor comprehenders. Text processes include word knowledge, world knowledge, inference, and strategies. In addition, this sample will inform whether cognitive engagement with text (i.e., standards of text coherence) maintained by students in grades 7–12 with average and low reading comprehension proficiency differs when they read easier and hard text for different purposes. Initial findings indicate differences in quantity and quality of responses to prompts designed to evaluate comprehension.

Several studies are in progress examining malleable cognitive processes such as working memory, attention, and retrieval from long-term memory. One study is using embodied cognition to examine possible ways to improve text representations among poor comprehenders.

Another series of studies examines (1) the relations among motivational factors, cognitive engagement with text, and text comprehension among adolescent readers; and (2) factors that moderate the effects of motivation on comprehension in students with reading comprehension difficulties.

Key Personnel: Marcia Barnes (UTHSC), Jack Fletcher (UH), David Francis (UH), Amy Barth (UH), Carolyn Denton (UTHSC), Greg Roberts (UT Austin), Chris Wolters (UH), Sharon Vaughn (UT Austin)

Development Studies: A series of comprehension interventions and an intervention for struggling ninth-grade readers has been developed. The first series of comprehension interventions were developed through an iterative cycle of testing and refinement during years 1 and 2 of the project. In this series, researchers incorporated vocabulary, background knowledge, self-regulation and inference-making strategies into English language arts and social studies instruction. Interventions are situated in the text sources of classrooms (e.g., textbook, web-based materials), supported by video, delivered by middle and high-school teachers, and focus on two outcomes outlined in the NAEP framework: reading for literary experiences and reading for information. The interventions have been pilot tested in large-scale randomized control studies resulting in positive results in favor of the interventions, and then revised based on findings in preparation for efficacy trials of the final versions of the interventions.

To facilitate application and generalization across grades and subjects, interventions are based on a set of components (e.g., developing background knowledge, comprehension monitoring) that can be applied in both English language arts and social studies, complemented by discipline-specific methods (e.g., text structure, technical vocabulary, how knowledge is evaluated in the discipline), and adjusted to reflect reading comprehension development across grades.

An intervention for ninth-grade students with adequate decoding skills but poor comprehension skills was been developed in response to request by the schools in which the grantee is working. The intervention includes vocabulary, background knowledge, self-regulation, and text based discussions. Students are taught in small groups using science and social studies text that are related to those used in the regular curriculum. A pilot study examining the effects of the ninth-grade struggling reader intervention showed promising results. The intervention was revised based on findings in preparation for formal efficacy testing. Text Processing and Motivation and Engagement Interventions are developed in partnership with teacher action researchers based on variables identified in the cognitive processing and motivation studies.

Key Personnel: Sharon Vaughn (UT Austin), Deb Simmons (Texas AM), Marcia Barnes (UTHSC), Carolyn Denton (UTHSC), Greg Roberts (UT Austin), Jeanne Wanzek (FSU), Jack Fletcher (UH), David Francis (UH), Amy Barth (UH)

Efficacy Studies: The efficacy of the Social Studies and ELA interventions is being tested using a multi-site cluster randomized design with random assignment at the classroom level. Outcomes measures include measures specifically targeted to the intervention and standardized measures of reading comprehension, and both immediate and long-term outcomes. All interventions are tested in school settings with emphasis on the feasibility of implementation under normal conditions with teachers implementing interventions with the range of learners found in typical school settings. Teachers received professional development in preparation for delivering the interventions. An efficacy trial for the ninth-grade struggling reader intervention is also underway.

Additional efficacy studies are also planned to identify the impact of particular intervention components (e.g., close reading of text) and pilot studies of the Text Processing and Motivation and Engagement Interventions will be conducted.

Key Personnel: Sharon Vaughn (UT Austin), Jack Fletcher (UH), David Francis (UH), Deb Simmons (Texas AM), Jeanne Wanzek (FSU), Greg Roberts (UT Austin), Elizabeth Swanson (UT Austin)

Project Website:

Products and Publications

Ahmed, Y., Francis, D. J., York, M., Fletcher, J. M., Barnes, M. A., & Kulesz, P. (2016). An Evaluation of the Direct and Inferential Mediation (DIME) Model of Reading Comprehension Using Latent Variables. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 44, 68–82. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.02.002

Arrington, C. N., Barnes, M. A., Kulesz, P. A., Fletcher, J. M., and York, M. (2014). The Contribution of Attentional Control and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension and Decoding. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18, 325–346. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2014.902461

Barnes, M.A. (2015). What Do Models of Reading Comprehension and its Development Have to Contribute to a Science of Comprehension Practice and Assessment for Adolescent Students? In K. Santi and D. Reed (Eds.), Improving Comprehension for Middle and High School Students (pp. 1–18). New York, NY: Springer.

Barnes, M.A., Ahmed, Y., Barth, A., and Francis, D.J. (2015). The Relation of Knowledge-Text Integration Processes and Reading Comprehension in Seventh to Twelfth Grade Students. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19, 253–272. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2015.1022650

Barnes, M. A., Raghubar, K. P., Faulkner, H., and Denton, C. A. (2014). The Construction of Visual–Spatial Situation Models in Children's Reading and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 119, 101–111. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2013.10.011

Barnes, M.A., Stuebing, K., Barth, A., Fletcher, J.M., and Francis, D. (2016). Cognitive Difficulties in Struggling Comprehenders and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension: A Comparison of Group Selection and Regression-Based Models. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 9 (2), 153–172. doi:10.1080/19345747.2015.1111482

Barth, A. E., Barnes, M. A., Francis, D., York, M. and Vaughn, S. (2015). Inferential Processing Among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension. Reading and Writing, 28, 587–609. doi: 10.1007/s11145-01409549-1

Barth, A. E., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Cirino, P. T., Romain, M. A., Francis, D. J., and Vaughn, S. (2012). Reliability and Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Median and Mean Scores Among Middle Grade Readers When Using Equated Texts. Reading Psychology, 33 (1–2), 133–161. doi: 10.1080/02702711.2012.631863.

Barth, A.E., Stuebing, K.K., Fletcher, J.M., Denton, C., Vaughn, S., and Francis, D. (2014). The Effect of Reading Duration on the Reliability and Validity of Middle School Students' ORF Performance. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 40 (1), 53–64. doi: 10.1177/1534508414545643.

Barth, A. E., Tolar, T. D., Fletcher, J. M., and Francis, D. J. (2014). The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle Grade Students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106 (1), 162–180. doi: 10.1037/a0033826.

Barth, A., Vaughn, S., Capin, P., Cho, E., Stillman, S., & Martinez, L. (in press). The Effects of a Text—Processing Comprehension Intervention on Struggling Middle School Readers. Topics in Language Disorders.

Barth, A.E., Vaughn, S., and McCulley, L. (2015). The Effects of Blended Text-Processing and Linguistic Comprehension Interventions Among Struggling Middle School Readers. International Research Academy on Learning Disabilities, 2 (2), 2–17.

Barth, A. E., Vaughn, S., Capin, P., Cho, E., Stillman-Spisak, S., Martinez, L. R., and Kincaid, H. (2016). The Effects of a Text-Processing Reading Comprehension Intervention on Struggling Middle School Readers. Topics in Language Disorders, 36 (4), 368–389. doi: 10.1097/TLD.0000000000000101

Cain, K. & Barnes, M.A. (in press). Reading Comprehension. What Develops and When? In K. Cain, D. Compton and R. Parrila (Eds.), Theories of Reading Development.

Clemens, N., Davis, J., Simmons, L., Oslund, E. and Simmons, D. (2014). Interpreting Secondary Students' Performance on a Timed, Multiple-Choice Reading Comprehension Assessment: The Prevalence and Impact of Non-Attempted Items. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0734282914547493.

Clemens, N.H., & Simmons, D., Simmons, L., Wang, H., and Kwok, O. (2016). The Prevalence of Reading Fluency and Vocabulary Difficulties Among Adolescents Struggling With Reading Comprehension. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0734282916662120

Denton, C.A., Enos, M., York, M.J., Francis, D.J., Barnes, M.A., Kulesz, P.A., Fletcher, J., and Carter, S. (2015). Text Processing Differences in Adolescent Adequate and Poor Comprehenders Reading Accessible and Challenging Narrative and Informational Text. Reading Research Quarterly, 50, 393–416. doi: 10.1002/rrq.105

Denton, C.A., Wolters, C.A., York, M, Swanson, E., Kulesz, P., and Francis, D.J. (2014). Adolescents' Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies: Differences Related to Reading Proficiency, Grade Level, and Gender. Journal of Learning and Individual Differences. Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.11.016

Denton, C.A., York, M.J., Francis, D.J., Haring, C., Ahmed, Y., and Bidulescu, A. (in press). An Investigation of an Intervention Approach to Promote Inference Generation by Adolescent Poor Comprehenders. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice.

Fall, A., and Roberts, G. (2012). High School Dropouts: Interactions Between Social Context, Self-Perceptions, School Engagement, and Student Dropout. Journal of Adolescence, 35 (4), 787–798. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.11.004.

Fogarty, M., Oslund, E., Simmons, D., Davis, J., Simmons, L., Anderson, L. Clemens, N., and Roberts, G. (2014). Examining the Effectiveness of a Multicomponent Reading Comprehension Intervention in Middle Schools: A Focus on Treatment Fidelity. Advance Online Copy. Educational Psychology Review, doi: 10/1007/s10648-014-9270-6.

Foorman, B. and Wanzek, J. (2016). Classroom Reading Instruction For All Students. In S. R. Jimerson, M. K., Burns, and A. M. Van Der Heyden (Eds.), The Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Assessment and Intervention, Second Edition. pp. 232–252 New York, NY: Springer

Hall, C. (2015). Inference Instruction For Struggling Readers: A Synthesis of Intervention Research. Educational Psychology Review, 28(1), 1–22. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-014-9295-x

Hall, C., and Barnes, M.A. (in press). Making Inferences to Support Reading Comprehension for Upper Elementary Students. Intervention in School and Clinic.

Hall, C., Kent, S. C., McCulley, L. V., Davis, A., and Wanzek, J. (2013). A New Look at Mnemonics and Graphic Organizers in the Secondary Social Studies Classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children, 46 (1), 47–55. doi: 10.1177/004005991304600106

Hall, C., Roberts, G. J., Cho, E., McCulley, L. V., Carroll, M., and Vaughn, S. (2016). Reading Instruction for English Learners in the Middle Grades: A Meta-Analysis. Educational Psychology Review. Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-016-9372-4

Kent, S. C., Wanzek, J., Swanson, E. A., and Vaughn, S. (2015). Team-Based Learning for Students With High-Incidence Disabilities in High School Social Studies Classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 30, 3–14. doi: 10.1111/ldrp.12048.

Kulesz, P. A., Francis, D. J., Barnes, M. A., & Fletcher. J. M (2016). The Influence of Reader Characteristics, Comprehension Processes and Passage Features on Reading Comprehension: An Explanatory Item Response Study. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication.

McCulley, L. V., Hall, C., and Vaughn, S. (2013). Research-Based Reading Instruction for Students With Learning Disabilities. In E. Ortlieb, And E.H. Cheek (Eds.), School-Based Interventions For Struggling Readers, K–8 (Literacy Research, Practice, and Evaluation) (Vol. 3, pp. 292–319). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. doi: 10.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000003018

McCulley, L. V., Katz, S., and Vaughn, S. (2013). Reading Instruction and Students With Learning Disabilities. In J. P. Bakken, F. E. Obiakor, and A. F. Rotatori (Eds.), Learning Disabilities: Practice Concerns and Students With LD (Advances in Special Education) (Vol. 25, pp. 19–43). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. doi: 10.1108/S0270-4013(2013)0000025005

McCulley, L. V. & Osman, D. J., (2015). Effects of Reading Instruction on Learning Outcomes in Social Studies: A Synthesis of Quantitative Research. Journal of Social Studies Research, 39(4), 183–195. doi: 10.1016/j.jssr.2015.06.002

Oslund, E. L., Clemens, N. H., Simmons, D. C., Smith, S. L., & Simmons, L. (2016). How Vocabulary Knowledge of Middle-School Students From Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds Influences Comprehension Processes and Outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 45, 159–165. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2015.11.013

Reed, D. K., Swanson, E., Petscher, Y., and Vaughn, S. (2013). The Effects of Teacher Read-Alouds and Student Silent Reading on Predominantly Bilingual High School Seniors' Learning and Retention of Social Studies Content. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s11145-013-9478-8.

Reed, D.K., Wexler, J., and Vaughn, S. (2012). RTI for Reading at the Secondary Level: Recommended Literacy Practices and Remaining Questions. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Roberts, G., Fletcher, J., Stuebing, K., Barth, A., and Vaughn, S. (2013). Treatment Effects for Older Struggling Readers: An Application of Moderated Mediation. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 10–21.

Roberts, G., Rane, S., Fall, A-M., Denton, C.A., Fletcher, J., and Vaughn, S. (2014). The Impact of a Longitudinal Intervention for Reading on Teacher-Rated Attention in Middle School Students. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Advanced Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2014.913251

Roberts, G., Scammacca, N., Osman, D. J., Hall, C., Mohammed, S., Vaughn, S., (2014). Team-Based Learning: Moderating Effects of Metacognitive Elaborative Rehearsal and Middle School History Content Recall. Educational Psychology Review. doi: 10.1007/s10648-014-9266-2.

Scammacca, N., Fall, A., and Roberts, G. (2015). Benchmarks for Expected Annual Growth for Students in the Bottom Quartile of the Normative Distribution. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8(3), 366–379. doi:10.1080/19345747.2014.952464.

Scammacca, N. K., Roberts, G. and Stuebing, K. K. (2014). Meta-Analysis With Complex Research Designs: Resolving Issues of Dependence With Multiple Measures and Multiple Group Comparisons. Review of Educational Research, 84 (3), 328–364. doi: 10.3102/0034654313500826

Scammacca, N. K., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., and Stuebing, K. K. (2013). A Meta-Analysis of Interventions for Struggling Readers in Grades 4–12: 1980–2011. Journal of Learning Disabilities. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0022219413504995.

Simmons, D. (2015). Instructional Engineering Principles to Frame the Future of Reading Intervention Research and Practice. Remedial and Special Education, 36 (1), 45–51. doi:10.1177/0741932514555023.

Simmons, D., Fogarty, M., Oslund, E., Simmons, L., Hairrell, A., Davis, J., Anderson, L., Clemens, N., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Stillman-Spisak, S. J., and Fall, A.-M. (2014). Integrating Content Knowledge-Building and Student-Regulated Comprehension Practices in Secondary English Language Arts Classes. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 7 (4), 309–330. doi: 10.1080/19345747.2013.836766.

Solis, M., Vaughn, S., Swanson. E., and McCulley, L. (2012). Collaborative Models of Instruction: The Empirical Foundations of Inclusion and Co-Teaching. Journal of School Psychology, 49 (5), 498–510. doi: 10.1002/pits.21606

Swanson, E. A., Hairrell, A., Kent, S. C., Ciullo, S., Wanzek, J., and Vaughn, S. (2014). A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis of Reading Interventions Using Social Studies Content for Students With Learning Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 178–195. doi: 10.1177/0022219412451131

Swanson, E. A., Reed, D. and Vaughn, S. (in press). Research-based Lessons Using Student Independent Reading in the Content Areas. Preventing School Failure.

Swanson, E., Reed, D., and Vaughn, S. (2016). Research-Based Lessons That Support Student Independent Reading in Social Studies. Preventing School Failure. Advance Online Publication

Swanson, E. A., Solis, M., Ciullo, S., and McKenna, J. W. (2012). Special Education Teachers' Perceptions Aand Instructional Practices in Response To Intervention Implementation. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(2), 115–126. doi: 10.1177/0731948711432510

Swanson, E. and Vaughn S. (in press). Learning Disabilities: Academic and Mental Health Needs. In Amie Grills (Ed.) Critical Issues in School-Based Mental Health: Evidence-Based Research, Practice, And Interventions.

Swanson, E. A., and Wanzek, J. (2014). Applying Research in Reading Comprehension to Social Studies Instruction for Middle and High School Students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 49 (3), 142–147. doi: 10.1177/1053451213496157

Swanson, E. A., Wanzek, J., Haring, C., Ciullo, S., and McCulley, L. (2013). Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals. Journal of Special Education, 47 (1), 3–13. doi: 10.1177/0022466911419516

Swanson, E. A., Wanzek. J., McCulley, L. V., Stillman-Spicak, S. J., Vaughn, S., and Simmons, D, Fogarty, M., and Hairrell, A. (2016). Literacy and Text Reading in Middle and High School Social Studies and English Language Arts Classrooms. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 32, 454–476.. Advanced Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/10573569.2014.910718

Swanson, E., Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Fall, A-M., Roberts, G., Hall, C. and Miller, V. (in press). Middle School Reading Comprehension and Content Learning Intervention for Below Average Readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties. Online first publication. 1–17.

Swanson. E. A., Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., and Fall, A-M. (2015). Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge among Middle School Students With Disabilities. Exceptional Children, 81 (4), 426–442. doi:10.1177/0014402914563704.

Swanson, E., and Wexler, J., (in press). Using Common Core State Standard Guidelines to Select Appropriate Text for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children.

Vaughn, S. and Hall, C. (in press). Theoretically Guided Interventions for Adolescents Who Are Poor Readers. Scientific Studies of Reading.

Vaughn, S., Martinez, L. R., Wanzek, J., Roberts, G., Swanson, E., and Fall, A-M. (in press). Improving Content Knowledge and Comprehension for English Language Learners: Findings From a Randomized Control Trial. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication.

Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Swanson, E. A., Wanzek, J., Fall, A-M., and Stillman-Spisak, S. J. (2015). Improving Middles School Students' Knowledge and Comprehension In Social Studies: A Replication. Educational Psychology Review, 27 (1), 31–50. doi: 10.1007/s10648-014-9274-2

Vaughn, S., and Solis, M. (2013). Why Intensive Interventions Are Necessary for Adolescents With Dyslexia: Findings From 3-Year Intervention and Future Research. In B. Miller, L. Cutting, and P. McCardle (Eds.), Unraveling Reading Comprehension: Behavioral, Neurobiological, and Genetic Components (pp. 233–243). Baltimore, MD, Brookes Publishing Co.

Vaughn, S. and Swanson, E.A. (2015). Special Education Research Advances Knowledge in Education. Exceptional Children, 82(1), 11–24. doi: 10.1177/0014402915598781.

Vaughn, S., Swanson, E. A., Roberts, G., Wanzek, J., Stillman-Spisak, S. J., Solis, M., and Simmons, D. (2013). Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge in Middle School. Reading Research Quarterly, 48 (1), 77–93. doi:10.1002/rrq.039.

Vaughn, S., Swanson, E. A., and Solis, M. (2013). Reading Comprehension for Adolescents With Significant Reading Problems. In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris, and S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of Learning Disabilities (2nd ed.; pp. 375–387). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., and Denton, C. A. (2014). Teaching Elementary Students With Learning Difficulties. In L. Florian (Ed.), Handbook of Special Education (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 633–657). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wanzek, J., Kent, S. C., & Stillman-Spisak, S. J. (2015). Perceptions of Instruction in Middle and Secondary United States History Classes. Theory and Research in Social Education, 43, 469–498.

Wanzek, J., Kent, S. C., Vaughn, S., Swanson, E. A., Roberts, G. (2015). Implementing Team-Based Learning in Middle School Social Studies Classes. The Journal of Educational Research, 108, 331–344. doi:10.1080/00220671.2014.893224.

Wanzek, J., Swanson, E.A., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., and Kent, S.C. (2015). Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text in High School Social Studies Classes. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. 8, 169–188. doi: 10.1080/19345747.2014.906011.

Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Kent, S. C., Swanson, E., Roberts, G., Haynes, M., Fall, A., Stillman-Spisak, S. J. and Solis, M. (2014). The Effects of Team-Based Learning on Social Studies Knowledge Acquisition in High School. Journal for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 7, 183–204. doi: 10.1080/19345747.2013.836765.

Wanzek, J., Swanson, E., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., and Fall., M-A. (2016). ). English Learner and Non-English Learner Students With Disabilities: Content Acquisition and Comprehension. Exceptional Children, 82, 428–442.

Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Scammacca, N. K., Metz, K. L., Murray, C. S., Roberts, G., and Danielson, L. (2013). Extensive Reading Interventions for Older Struggling Readers: Implications From Research. Review of Educational Research, 83 (2), 163–195.doi:3102/0034654313477212.

Wolters, C.A., Barnes, M.A., Kulesz, P.A., York, M. and Francis, D.J. (2016). Examining a Motivational Treatment and Its Impact on Adolescents' Reading Comprehension and Fluency. Journal of Educational Research. Advanced online publication.

Wolters, C., Denton, C. A., York, M., and Francis, D. J. (2014). Adolescents' Motivation for Reading: Group Differences and Relation to Standardized Achievement. Reading and Writing, 27 (3), 503–533. doi: 0.1007/s11145-013-9454-3