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icon of glasses and a book Reading for Understanding Research Initiative


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Reading for Understanding Across Grades 6 through 12: Evidence-Based Argumentation for Disciplinary Learning

Year: 2010
Name of Institution:
Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
Goal: Multiple Goals
Principal Investigator:
Goldman, Susan
Award Amount: $19,256,585
Award Period: 5 years
Award Number: R305F100007


Purpose: Project READI (Reading, Evidence, and Argumentation in Disciplinary Instruction) defines reading for understanding in adolescence as the ability to engage in evidence-based argumentation across multiple texts and supports its learning in three disciplines: history, science, and English literature. Disciplinary literacy involves complex critical analysis processes as well as close attention to text. The research team proposes a model that captures these processes while attending to the psychological and social challenges of adolescence. Central to this model is the necessity of viewing evidence-based argumentation as an activity situated in a sociocultural context. This work will contribute to expanding extant reading comprehension models and produce a set of fully tested Evidence-Based Argument Instruction Modules (E-B AIMS) that exemplify core design principles. Each module will include: (1) exemplar curriculum units built on developmental progressions in each content area (history, science, and literature); (2) formative assessments that document student learning and guide instructional planning integral to the units; (3) SenseMaker, a software tool for supporting evidence-based argumentation in the disciplines; and (4) professional development materials (including videotaped instruction, student work samples, and lesson designs) critical to preparing teachers to support instruction that creates opportunities for students to engage in reading for understanding. Partners include researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Northern Illinois University (NIU), DePaul University, WestEd, Northwestern University (NU), University of Chicago (UC), University of Pennsylvania (UPenn), American Institute for Research (AIR), and Inquirium LLC. A number of school personnel and organizations are serving as key collaborators for the duration of this work.

Grade Span: Grades 6–12

School Partners: Antioch Unified School District, Chicago Public Schools, Dixon Unified School District, Hayward Unified School District, Jefferson School District, Leyden Township School District, Lincoln Unified School District, Maine Township School District, Mountain View Los Altos High School District, New Haven Unified School District, Oakland Unified District, San Lorenzo Unified School District, San Mateo Union High School District, San Ramon Valley Unified School District, and Winton School District

Basic Cognitive Studies: The basic studies are organized around three lines of work, each of which take place in the disciplines of science, history, and English literature. In one line of work, researchers examine the skills and processes students engage in when building text representations from multiple sources. For example, the team seeks to identify the characteristics of texts and text sets that promote a student's ability to analyze and synthesize arguments across multiple sources. In a second line of work, researchers explore the scaffolding necessary to support appropriate implementation of these skills in the context of specific tasks and activities (e.g., task instructions, examples, feedback). The third line of basic cognitive studies seeks to identify the "optimal" design characteristics of tasks and texts intended to support comprehension for readers with different knowledge, skills, ages, and dispositions, and includes an explicit focus on questions of developmental appropriateness of these tasks and texts as readers move from 6th to 12th grade.

Key Personnel: Led by M. Anne Britt (NIU), Carol D. Lee (NU); and Jennifer Wiley (UIC), with Susan Goldman (UIC), Thomas Griffin (UIC), Peter Hastings (DePaul Univ), Kim Lawless (UIC), Joe Magliano (NIU), Brad Pillow (NIU), and Stephen Briner (UIC). Supported by: Matthew Brown (Inquirium LLC), Will Brown (WestEd), Irisa Charney-Sirott (WestEd), Gayle Cribb (WestEd), Stephanie Davenport (retired teacher), Julia Emig (Literacy Curriculum Specialist, CPS), MariAnne George (UIC), Rita Jensen (WestEd), Sarah Levine (NU), Michael Manderino (NIU), Martin Moe (Social Studies Curriculum Specialist, Chicago Public Schools), Jim Pellegrino (UIC), Taffy Raphael (UIC),Cynthia Shanahan (UIC), and Ursula Sexton (WestEd)

Intervention Development Studies: The intervention development research effort began in years 1 and 2 with the basic cognitive research studies, and observational studies. Observational studies of existing approaches to disciplinary literacy instruction inform the prototyping of the E-B AIMS. In addition, a 15-month, mixed-method longitudinal study is being undertaken with a subset of low-income African-American students in order to understand how cognitive and psycho-social processes develop over time in the disciplinary context of English literature. Analyses will focus on the relationship between youth's perceptions of cultural identity and socialization, school climate, and reading performance across time. This study will provide information about the kinds of instruction that seem to help students whose struggles with school performance are not primarily due to poor academic skills.

Beginning in year 1, concurrent, multiple, design-based studies in classrooms were used to iteratively design and refine the E-B AIMS. Surveys of student engagement, classroom artifacts, classroom observations, teacher interviews, and student interviews inform the development and refinement of the E-B AIMS. The teacher networks (UIC Teacher Network, WestEd Teacher Inquiry Network) play an integral role in informing the development and preparing teachers to understand and implement the E-B AIMS approach. The team is also developing a prototype software tool called SenseMaker designed to provide student workspaces that can be used individually or collaboratively to help them in interpreting tasks, activating prior knowledge, and constructing knowledge to facilitate evidence-based argumentation.

The E-B AIMS reflect a set of design principles that specify essential knowledge, skills, and practices of reading for understanding in each discipline as well as instructional strategies for supporting students in acquiring them. The instructional strategies include classroom norms and routines that provide cognitive and social support for students engaging with complex texts to develop evidence-based arguments that address important disciplinary questions. Modules are targeted at one of three grade-band proficiency levels: 6–8, 9/10, or 11/12 (beginning, middle, advanced) that reflect developmentally appropriate goals and learning objectives. Tasks, text sets, instructional supports (e.g., worksheets, activities), formative and summative assessments constitute the elements of the modules. Modules are co-designed by teachers and university-based researchers and content experts. They are intended for use with students and as objects of teacher inquiry in preparation for implementing E-B AIMs and creating their own instantiations of modules that promote reading to accomplish learning objectives in their discipline.

The fully developed E-B AIMS and SenseMaker tool will be piloted to determine whether they are working as intended to improve students' reading for understanding, content knowledge, vocabulary and academic language, participation in evidence-based argument, discourse, text-based problem solving strategies, engagement, persistence, and self-efficacy in academic tasks. A key issue in these studies is to determine relationships between extent and duration of intervention and degree of effect on these various outcomes. It is expected that changes in some (e.g., persistence, self-efficacy) will depend on longer term intervention than changes in others (e.g., content knowledge acquisition).

Key Personnel: Led by: Cynthia Greenleaf (WestEd), Carol Lee (NU), Kimberly Lawless (UIC), Taffy Raphael (UIC), Cynthia Shanahan (UIC), with Matt Brown (Inquirium LLC), Willard Brown (WestEd), Gayle Cribb (WestEd), Irisa Charney-Sirott (WestEd), Susan Goldman (UIC), Marianne George (UIC), Monica Ko (UIC), Sarah Levine (NU), Joe Magliano (NIU), Michael Manderino (NIU), Stacy Marple (WestEd), James Pellegrino (UIC), Joshua Radinsky (UIC), Teresa Sosa (UIC), and Margaret Spencer (UC). Supported by: Lauren Amos (AIR), M. Ann Britt (NIU), Rick Coppola (Literature Teacher), Davido DuPree (UPenn), Camille Elly (Literature Teacher), Suzanne Fagley (UPenn), Johanna Heppeler (History Teacher), Jodi Hoard (History Teacher), Rita Jensen (WestEd), Adriana Jaureguy (Science Teacher), Cindy Litman (WestEd), Ben Loh (Inqirium LLC), and Ursula Sexton (WestEd)

Efficacy Studies Final versions of the interventions will be tested in middle and high school classrooms. Randomized control studies are planned to test the effectiveness of the E-B AIMS in improving teachers' knowledge and practices related to teaching reading for understanding as well as student outcomes in one discipline in middle and high school. The work will explore how evidence of impact varies as a function of the quality of the implementation of the module for engaging in the practices of argumentation in the disciplines. Randomized control studies will evaluate the impact of E-B AIMS against traditional classroom instruction. Outcome measures include proximal and distal assessments of reading for understanding. Quality of implementation will be assessed using classroom observations, lesson logs, and instructional artifacts.

Key Personnel: Led by: M. Anne Britt (NIU), Susan Goldman (UIC), Cynthia Greenleaf (WestEd), Thomas Griffin (UIC), MariAnne George (UIC), Thomas Hanson (WestED), Kimberly Lawless (UIC), Carol Lee (NU), Joe Magliano (NIU), James Pellegrino (UIC), Jennifer Wiley (UIC),and Mariya Yukhymenko (UIC)

Project Website:


Blaum, D., Wiley, J., Griffin, T. D., and Britt, M. A. (in press). Thinking About Global Warming: The Effect of Policy-Related Documents and Prompts on Learning About Causes of Climate Change. Discourse Processes.

Braasch, J. L. G., Bråten, I., Britt, M. A., Steffens, B., and Strømsø, H. I. (2014). Sensitivity to Inaccurate Argumentation in Health News Articles: Potential Contributions of Readers’ Topic and Epistemic Beliefs. In D. N. Rapp and J. L. G. Braasch (Eds.), Processing Inaccurate Information: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives from Cognitive Science and the Educational Sciences (pp. 117-137). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Braasch, J., Goldman, S.R. and Wiley, J. (2013). The Influences of Text and Reader Characteristics on Learning From Refutations in Science Texts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105 (3), 561-568. doi: 10.1037/a0032627

Britt, M. A., Kopp, K., Durik, A. M., Blaum, D., and Hastings, P. (2016). Identifying General Cognitive Abilities Involved in Argument Comprehension and Evaluation. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie,) 30 (2-3, 79-95.

Britt, M.A., Goldman, S.R., and Rouet, J-F. (2013). Foreword. In M.A. Britt, S.R. Goldman, and J.F. Rouet (Eds.). Reading: From Words to Multiple Texts (pp. viii-xiv). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

Britt, M.A., Richter, T., & Rouet, J-F. (2014). Scientific Literacy: The Role of Goal-directed Reading and Evaluation in Understanding Scientific Information. Educational Psychologist, 49, 104-122.

Britt, M.A., Rouet, J.F., and Braasch, J.A. (2013). Documents as Entities: Extending the Situation Model Theory of Comprehension. In M. A. Britt, S. R. Goldman, and J. F. Rouet (Eds.). Reading: From Words to Multiple Texts (pp. 160 - 179). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

Brock, C.H., Goatley, V.J., Raphael, T.E., Trost-Shahata, E., Weber, K. (2014). Engaging Elementary Students in Disciplinary Learning and Literacy K-6: Reading, Writing, and Teaching Tools for the Classroom. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Bromme, R., & Goldman, S. R. (2014). The Public's Bounded Understanding of Science. Educational Psychologist, 49, 59-69.

Burkett, C. & Goldman, S.R. (in press). "Getting the Point" of Literature: Relationships Between Processing and Interpretation. Discourse Processes.

Connor, C. M., Goldman, S. R., & Fishman, B. (2014). Technologies That Support Students’ Literacy Development. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, and M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, 4th edition (pp. 591-604). New York, NY: Springer Science.

Dandotkar, S., Britt, M. A., and Magliano, J. P. (in press) The Effect of the Logical Relatedness and Semantic Overlap on Argument Evaluation. Discourse processes.

De Pereyra , G., Britt , M. A., Braasch , J. L. G., and Rouet, J. F. (2014). Reader's Memory For Information Sources in Simple News Stories: Effects of Text and Task Features. Journal Of Cognitive Psychology, 26 (2), 187-204. Doi: 10.1080/20445911.2013.879152

DiBello, L. V., Pellegrino, J. W., Gane, B D., and Goldman, S. R. (in press). The Contribution of Student Response Processes to Validity Analyses for Instructionally Supportive Assessments. In K. Erickan & J.W. Pellegrino (Eds.), Validation of Score Meaning in the Next Generation of Assessments. New York, NY: Routledge.

Goldman, S.R. (2014). Perspectives on Learning: Methodologies for Exploring Learning Processes and Outcomes. Frontline Learning Research, 2 (4).

Goldman, S. R. (2015). Reading and the Web: Broadening the Need for Complex Comprehension. In R.J.Spiro, M. Deschryver, M. S. Hagerman, P. Morsink, & P. Thompson (Eds.), Reading at a Crossroads? Disjunctures and Continuities in Current Conceptions and Practices (Pp.89-103). New York, NY: Routledge.

Goldman, S. R., Mccarthy, K., & Burkett, C. (2015). Interpretive Inferences in Literature. In E. O'Brien A. Cook, and R. Lorch (Eds.), Inferences During Reading (pg. 386-415). Boston, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Goldman, S.R. (2012). Adolescent Literacy: Learning and Understanding Content. Future of Children, 22 (2), 89 – 116. Doi: 10.1353/Foc.2012.0011

Goldman, S.R., Braasch, J.G., Wiley, J., Graesser, A.C., and Brodowinska, K. (2012). Comprehending and Learning From Internet Sources: Processing Patterns of Better and Poorer Learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 47 (4), 356-381. Doi: 10.1002/RRQ.027

Goldman, S. R., Britt, M. A., Brown, W., Cribb, G., George, M., Greenleaf, C., Lee, C. D., Shanahan, C., and Project READI (2016). Disciplinary Literacies and Learning to Read for Understanding: A Conceptual Framework for Disciplinary Literacy. Educational Psychologist, 51 (2), 219-246.

Goldman, S.R., Lawless, K.A., and Manning, F. (2013). Research and Development of Multiple Source Comprehension Assessment. In M.A. Britt, S.R. Goldman, and J.F. Rouet (Eds.). Reading: From Words to Multiple Texts (Pp. 180 – 199). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor And Francis Group.

Goldman, S. R., Lawless, K. A., Pellegrino, J. W., Braasch, J. L.G., Manning, F. H., and Gomez, K. (2012). A Technology for Assessing Multiple Source Comprehension: An Essential Skill of the 21st Century. In M. Mayrath, J. Clarke-Midura, and D. H. Robinson (Eds.). Technology-Based Assessments For 21st Century Skills: Theoretical And Practical Implications From Modern Research (Pp. 171 - 207). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Goldman, S. R., and Lee, C. D. (2014). Commentary on Text Complexity: State of the Art and the Conundrums It Raises. Elementary Education Journal, 115, 290 – 300. (Special Issue Edited By E. Hiebert and P. D. Pearson.)

Goldman, S.R., and Scardamalia, M. (2013). Managing, Understanding, Applying, and Creating Knowledge in the Information Age: Next-Generation Challenges and Opportunities. Cognition and Instruction, 31 (2): 255-269. Doi: 10.1080/10824669.2013.773217

Goldman, S. R. & Pellegrino, J.W. (2015). Research on Learning and Instruction: Implications for Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2 (1), 33-41. DOI:10.1177/2372732215601866

Goldman, S. R., & Snow, C. (2015). Adolescent Literacy: Development and Instruction. In Pollatsek and R. Treiman (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook Of Reading (Pp.463-478). NY: Oxford University Press.

Goldman, S. R., Snow, C., and Vaughn, S. (2016). Common Themes in Teaching Reading for Understanding: Lessons from Three Projects. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. DOI: 10:1002/jaal.586

Greenleaf, C., Brown, W., Goldman, S.R., & Ko, M. (2013). READI For Science: Promoting Scientific Literacy Practices Through Text-Based Investigations for Middle and High School Science Teachers and Students. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.

Greenleaf, C. & Valencia, S. (In Press). Missing In Action: Learning from Texts in Subject-Matter Classrooms. To Appear In D. Appleman & K. Hinchman (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy: A Handbook of Practice-Based Research. NY: Guilford Press.

Griffin, T.D., Wiley, J., Britt, M.A. and Salas, C. (2012). The Role of CLEAR Thinking in Learning Science From Multiple-Document Inquiry Tasks. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 5 (1): 63-78.

Griffin, T.D., Wiley, J. and Salas, C. (2013). Supporting Effective Self-Regulated Learning: The Critical Role of Monitoring. In R. Azevedo and V. Aleven (Eds.) International Handbook Of Metacognition and Learning Technologies: Vol 28. (Pp. 19-34). New York, NY: Springer Science.

Griffin, T.D., Wiley, J., and Thiede, K. (2013). Test Expectancy Effects On Metacomprehension, Self-Regulation, and Learning. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, and I. Wachsmuth (Eds.) Cooperative Minds: Social Interaction and Group Dynamics: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference Of The Cognitive Science Society (P. 3953). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

Hall, A. H. (2016). Developing Literary Reasoning Practices in Class Discussions. In Looi, C. K., Polman, J. L., Cress, U., and Reimann, P. (Eds.). (2016). Transforming Learning, Empowering Learners: The International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) 2016, Volume 2. Singapore: International Society of the Learning Sciences, 1199-1200.

Hastings, P., Hughes, S., Blaum, D., Wallace, P., and Britt, M. A. (2016, June). Stratified Learning for Reducing Training Set Size. In International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 341-346). Springer International Publishing.

Hastings, P., Hughes, S., Britt, A., Blaum, D., and Wallace, P. (2014). Toward Automatic Inference of Causal Structure in Student Essays. In Intelligent Tutoring Systems Proceedings (Pp. 266-271). Springer International Publishing.

Hastings, P., Hughes, S., Magliano, J.P., Goldman, S.R. and Lawless, K. (2012). Assessing the Use of Multiple Sources in Student Essays. Behavior Research Methods, 44 (3): 622-633. Doi: 10.3758/S13428-012-0214-0

Hastings, P., Hughes, S., Magliano, J.P., Goldman, S.R., and Lawless, K. (2011). Text Categorization for Assessing Multiple Documents Integration, or John Henry Visits a Data Mine. In G. Biswas, S. Bull, J. Kay, and A. Mitrovic (Eds). Proceedings Of The 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (Pp. 115-1122). Berlin, Germany: Spring-Verlag.

Higgs, K., Magliano, J. P., Vidal-Abarca, E., Martínez, T., & McNamara, D. S. (In Press). Bridging Skill and Task Oriented Reading. Discourse Processes.

Hinze, S.R., Wiley, J. and Pellegrino, J.W. (2013). The Importance of Constructive Comprehension Processes in Learning From Tests. Journal of Memory and Language, 69 (2), 151-164.

Hughes, S., Hastings, P., Britt, M. A., Wallace, P., and Blaum, D. (2015). Machine Learning for Holistic Evaluation of Scientific Essays. Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence In Education, (Pp.165-175).

Hughes, S., Hastings, P., Magliano, J. P., Goldman, S. R., and Lawless, K. (2012). Automated Approaches for Detecting Integration in Student Essays. In S. A. Cerri & B. Clancy (Eds.) ITS 2012, (Pp. 274-279). Berlin, DE: Springer-Verlag.

Jaeger, A. J., and Wiley, J. (2015). Reading an Analogy Can Cause the Illusion of Comprehension. Discourse Processes, 52, 376-405, DOI: 10.1080/0163853X.2015.1026679

Jaeger, A. J., and Wiley, J. (2014). Do Illustrations Help or Harm Metacomprehension Accuracy? Learning & Instruction, 34, 58-73. DOI:10.1016/J.Learninstruc.2014.08.002

James, K., Goldman, S. R., Ko, M., Greenleaf, C. L., and Brown, W. (2014). Multiple-Text Processing in Text-Based Scientific Inquiry. Proceedings Of The 11th International Conference Of The Learning Sciences, Boulder, CO.

Ko, M., Goldman, S. R., Radinsky, J. R., James, K., Hall, A., Popp, J., Bolz, M., and George, M. (In Press). Looking Under the Hood: Productive Messiness in Design for Argumentation in Science, Literature and History. In V. Svhila & R. Reeve (Eds) Untold Story: Design as Scholarship in the Learning Sciences. New York, NY: Routledge.

Lee, C.D. (2011). Education and the Study of Literature. Scientific Study of Literature, 1 (1): 49-58.

Lee, C. D. (2014). Commentary: The Multi-Dimensional Demands of Reading in the Disciplines. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 58: 9-15.

Lee, C. D. (2014). A Voyeuristic View of Possibilities and Threats: Neurosciences and Education. Human Development, 57: 1-4.

Lee, C. D. (2014). A Multi-Dimensional Cultural Modeling Framework for the Design of Robust Literacy Instruction. In 63rd Yearbook Of The Literacy Research Association (Pp. 78-85). Altamonte Springs, Florida: Literacy Research Association.

Lee, C. D. (2014). Reading Gaps and Complications of Scientific Studies of Learning. In S. Harper (Ed.), The Elusive Quest for Civil Rights in Education: Evidence-Based Perspectives From Leading Scholars on the 50th Anniversary Of The Civil Rights Act. Philadelphia, PA: Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education. The University Of Pennsylvania.

Lee, C. D. (2015). Influences of the Experience of Race as a Lens for Understanding Variation in Displays of Competence in Reading Comprehension. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Reading: Reader, Text and Context. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Lee, C.D. (2015). The Infrastructure and Conceptual Challenges of the Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts as a Case. In J. Supovitz and J. Spillane (Eds.) Challenging Standards: Navigating Conflict and Building Capacity In the Era of the Common Core (Pp.15-24). New York, NY: Rowman –Littlefield.

Lee, C. D., & Goldman, S. R. (2015) Assessing Literacy Reasoning: Text and Task Complexities. Theory into Practice, 54 (3): 213-227. DOI:10.1080/00405841.2015.1044377

Lee, C.D., Goldman, S.R., Levine, S., and Magliano, J.P., (2016). Epistemic Cognition in Literary Reasoning. In J. Green, W. Sandoval, and I. Bråten (Eds.), Handbook of Epistemic Cognition (pp.165-183). NY: Routledge.

Levine, S., and Horton, W.S. (2013). Using Affective Appraisal to Help Readers Construct Literary Interpretations. Scientific Study of Literature, 3 (1), 105-136. Doi:10.1075/Ssol.3.1.10lev

Levine, S. (2014). Making Interpretation Visible With an Affect-Based Strategy. Reading Research Quarterly, 49. Advance Online Copy.Doi: 10.1002/Rrq.71

Levine, S., and Horton, W. (2015). Helping High School Students Read Like Experts: Affective Evaluation, Salience, and Literary Interpretation. Cognition and Instruction, 33, (2), 125-153.

Loschky, L. C., Larson, A. M., Magliano, J. P., and Smith, T. J. (2015). What Would Jaws do? The Tyranny of Film and the Relationship Between Gaze and Higher-Level Narrative Film Comprehension. Public Library of Science (PLoS ONE) 10(11) e0142474. doi:10.1371/journal.

Magliano, J.P., and Graesser, A.C. (2012). Computer-Based Assessment of Student-Constructed Responses. Behavior Research Methods, 44 (3): 608-621. Doi: 10.3758/S13428-012-0211-3

Magliano, J. P., Loschky, L.C., Clinton, J., and Larson, A. M. (2013). Is Reading the Same as Viewing? An Exploration of the Similarities and Differences Between Processing Text- and Visually Based Narratives. In B. Miller, L. Cutting and P. McCardle (Eds.), Unraveling the Behavioral, Neurobiological and Genetic Components of Reading Comprehension. (pp. 78-90). Baltimore, MD: Brooks Publishing Co.

Magliano, J. P., Ray, M., & Millis, K. K., (In Press). The Reading Strategy Assessment Tool: A Computer-Based Approach for Evaluating Comprehension Processes During Reading. To Appear In S. A. Crossley and D. S. Mcnamara (Eds), Handbook on Educational Technologies For Literacy. New York, NY; Taylor And Francis.

Medin, D., Lee, C. D., and Bang, M. (2014). Particular Points of View. Scientific American, 311: 44-45.

McCarthy, K. S., and Goldman, S. R. (2015). Comprehension of Short Stories: Effects of Task Instructions on Literary Interpretation. Discourse Processes, 52, 585-608. DOI: 10.1080/0163853X.2014.967610

McCarthy, K. S. (In Press). Reading Beyond the Lines: A Critical Review of Cognitive Approaches to Literary Interpretation and Comprehension. Scientific Study of Literature. DOI:10.1075/Ssol.5.1.05mcc

Nasir, N., Rosebery, A., Warren, B. and Lee, C. D. (2014). Learning as a Cultural Process: Achieving Equity Through Diversity. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press.

Pellegrino, J. W., DiBello, L. V., & Goldman, S. R. (2016). A Framework for Conceptualizing and Evaluating the Validity of Instructionally Relevant Assessments. Educational Psychologist, 0 (0): 1-23. DOI:10.1080/00461520.2016.1145550

Pellegrino, J.W. and Wilson, M. (2015). Assessment of Complex Cognition: Commentary on the Design and Validation of Assessments. Theory Into Practice, 54 (3): 263-273. DOI:10.1080/00405841.2015.1044377

Popp, J. S. (2016). Knowledge Building in Teacher Professional Learning Communities: Focus of Meeting Matters. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 347-359.

Radinsky, J., Goldman, S. R., and Pellegrino, J. W. (2014). Historical Thinking: In Search of Conceptual and Practical Guidance for the Design and Use of Assessments of Student Competence. In K. Ercikan and P. Seixas (Eds.) New Directions in Assessing Historical Thinking (Pp.132-141). New York, NY: Informa UK Limited.

Raphael, T. E., Vasquez, J. M., Fortune, A. J., Gavelek, J. R., and Au, K. H. (2014). Sociocultural Approaches to Professional Development: Supporting Sustainable School Change. In L. E. Martin, S. Kragler, D. J. Quatroche, & K. L. Bauserman (Eds.), The Handbook of Professional Development: Successful Models and Practices, Pre-K-12 (Pp. 145–173). New York: Guilford.

Rouet, J-F., and Britt, M.A. (2014). Multimedia Learning From Multiple Documents. In R. Mayer (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (2nd Edition) (Pp. 813-841). Cambridge University Press.

Sanchez, C. A., and Jaeger, A. J. (2014). If It’s Hard to Read, It Changes How Long You Do It: Reading Time as an Explanation for Perceptual Fluency Effects on Judgment. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1-6. DOI: 10.3758/S13423-014-0658-6

Scharrer, L., Britt, M.A., Stadtler, M. and Bromme, R. (2013). Easy to Understand But Difficult to Decide: Information Comprehensibility and Controversiality Affect Laypeople’s Science-Based Decisions. Discourse Processes, 50, 361-387. Doi: 10.1080/0163853X.2013.813835

Shanahan, C. (2013). What Does It Take? The Challenge of Disciplinary Literacy. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 57 (8), 93-98. Doi: 10.1002/JAAL.226

Shanahan, C. (2014). Reading And Writing Across Multiple Texts. In K. A. Hinchman and H. K. Sheridan-Thomas (Eds), Best Practices in Adolescent Literacy Instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Shanahan, C. (2013). Research In Multiple Texts And Text Support. In J. Ippolito, J. Lawrence, And C. Zeller (Eds.) Adolescent Literacy in the Era of the Common Core: From Research Into Practice. Boston: Harvard Ed Review Press.

Shanahan, C. (2015). Literacy Practices that Adolescents Deserve: Disciplinary Literacies Strategies in Content Area Classes. International Reading Association e-ssentials: Newark, DL. DOI:10.1598/e-ssentials.8069

Shanahan, C., Heppler, J., Manderino, M., Bolz, M., Cribb, G., and Goldman, S. R. (In Press). Deepening What It Means to Read (And Write) Like a Historian: Progressions of Instruction Across a School Year in an Eleventh Grade U.S. History Class. The History Teacher.

Shanahan, C. and Shanahan, T. (2015). The What and How of Adolescent Literacy. In M. Hougan (Ed). Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction. Paul E. Brookes Publishing Company.

Shanahan, T. and Shanahan, C. (2014). The Implications of Disciplinary Literacy. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 57, 628-631. Doi: 10.1002/Jaal.297

Shanahan, T. and Shanahan, C. (2014). Teaching History and Literacy. In K. A. Hinchman And H. Sheridan-Thomas (Eds.). Best Practices in Adolescent Literacy Instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Sosa, T., Hall, A. H., Goldman, S. R., and Lee, C. D. (2016). Developing Symbolic Interpretation through Literary Argumentation. Journal of Learning Sciences. 25, 93-132.

Steffens, B., Britt, M.A., Braasch, J.L., Stromso, H., and & Braten, I. (2014). Memory for Scientific Arguments and Their Sources: Claim-Evidence Consistency Matters. Discourse Processes, 51 (1/2), 117-142. Doi: 10.1080/0163853X.2013.855868

Voss, J.F. and Wiley, J. (2013). From Decoding to Documents: The Acquisition and Interaction of Comprehension Skills. In M. A. Britt, S. R. Goldman, and J. F. Rouet (Eds.). Reading: From Words To Multiple Texts (Pp. 200 - 205). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor And Francis Group.

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