School Pulse Panel

< Back to School Responses to COVID-19

The School Pulse Panel is a study collecting information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic from a national sample of elementary, middle, high, and combined-grade public schools. Some survey questions are asked repeatedly to observe trends over time while others examine unique topics in a single month. Below highlights the most recent data collection, followed by findings for additional topics, and a table outlining topic areas for each month of collection. An excel file with estimates and standard errors is available for download and includes results for all months in a single file. See more information about the reporting groups.

Current Releases

Learning Mode

Select a focal year: 2022 - 2023 school year | 2021 - 2022 school year

2022–23 School Year

2021–22 School Year

Data collection: September, October

Data collection: January, February, March, April, May, and June

Key Findings

  • The percentage of public schools offering full-time in-person instruction in October (99 percent) was not significantly different from September (99 percent).
  • The percentage of public schools offering remote learning (17 percent) and hybrid learning (6 percent) in October were not significantly different from respective results in September.
  • The percentage of public schools offering full-time in-person instruction in June (98 percent) was not significantly different from January (97), February (99), March (99), April (100), or May (99 percent).
  • In February, ninety-five percent of public schools returned from the winter break with no interruption to learning.

Additional Information:

Quarantine

Select a focal year: 2022 - 2023 school year | 2021 - 2022 school year

2022–23 School Year

2021–22 School Year

Data collection: September, October

Data collection: January, February, March, April, May, and June

Key Findings

  • A smaller percentage of public schools reported students in quarantine due to COVID-19 in October (30 percent) compared to September (47 percent).
  • A smaller percentage of public schools reported staff in quarantine due to COVID-19 in October (19 percent) compared to September (27 percent).
  • A smaller percentage of public schools reported students in quarantine due to COVID-19 in June (34 percent) compared to May (47 percent).
  • A smaller percentage of public schools reported staff in quarantine due to COVID-19 in June (24 percent) compared to May (35 percent).

Additional Information:

Staffing

Select a focal year: 2022 - 2023 school year | 2021 - 2022 school year

2022–23 School Year

2021–22 School Year

Data collection: August and October

Data collection: January and June

Key Findings

  • Forty-five percent of public schools reported having one or more vacant teaching positions in October.
  • Fifty-three percent of public schools reported in August feeling understaffed entering the 2022–23 school year.
  • In June 2022, eighty-eight percent of public schools reported that teacher and staff burnout as a concern during the 2021–22 school year.
  • Sixty-two percent of public schools in June reported that they were concerned about filling vacant staff positions.
  • Public schools expect to have to fill an average of three teaching vacancies for the 2022–23 school year.

Additional Information:

Supply Chain

Data collection: October 2022

Key Findings

  • Twenty-four percent of public schools reported in October that procurement challenges for food services had severe or moderate negative impacts on their school operations.
  • Twenty-seven percent of public schools reported in October that procurement challenges for laptops and other electronic devices had severe or moderate negative impacts on their school operations.

Additional Information:

Food and Nutrition

Select a focal year: 2022 - 2023 school year | 2021 - 2022 school year

2022–23 School Year

2021–22 School Year

Data collection: October

Data collection: March

Key Findings

  • Of the 88 percent of public schools that indicated they operated USDA school and breakfast meal programs, 26 percent reported it was much more or a little more difficult for their school to operate meal programs during this school year (2022–23) compared to last school year (2021–22).
  • Of the 94 percent of public schools that indicated they operated USDA school and breakfast meal programs, 38 percent reported challenges obtaining enough food, beverages, and/or meal service supplies.

Additional Information:

Additional Topics (A–Z)

After School Programs

Data collection: September 2022

Key Findings

  • In September, fifty-six percent of public schools reported providing after-school instruction to students who need academic assistance.
  • Of schools providing after-school instruction to students in need, forty-eight percent reported using high-dosage tutoring.

Additional Information:

Absenteeism

Data collection: May 2022

Key Findings

  • Public schools reported student chronic absenteeism and teacher absences have increased compared to prior school years.
  • More than three-quarters of public schools reported it is more difficult to get substitutes than it was before the pandemic.
  • Nearly three-quarters of public schools are frequently relying on administrators, non-teaching staff, and teachers on their free periods to cover classes.

Additional Information:

Community Partnerships

Data collection: August 2022

Key Findings

  • Forty-five percent of public schools reported that they use a community school or wraparound services model, which is when a school partners with other government agencies and/or local nonprofits to support and engage with the local community.
  • A larger percentage of schools in high poverty locations than those in lower poverty locations reported using a community school or wraparound services model.

Additional Information:

Learning Recovery

Data collection: June 2022

Key Findings

  • Sixty-four percent of public schools reported that the pandemic played a major role to students being behind grade level to start the school year.
  • More than half of public schools utilized high-dosage tutoring to support pandemic-related learning recovery.

Additional Information:

Mental Health and Well-Being

Data collection: April 2022

Key Findings

  • Seventy percent of public schools reported that the percentage of students who have sought mental health services increased since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Twenty-nine percent of public schools reported that the percentage of staff who have sought mental health services increased since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Fifty-six percent of public schools reported they moderately or strongly agree that their school is able to effectively provide mental health services to all students in need.

Additional Information:

Mitigation Strategies

Select a focal year: 2022 - 2023 school year | 2021 - 2022 school year

2022–23 School Year

Data collection: September 2022

Key Findings

  • Fifteen percent of public schools used a Test-to-Stay program in September, which was a lower percentage than in June (34).
  • Thirty-eight percent of public schools had on-site testing for students in September when they have symptoms or possible exposure to COVID-19, which was a lower percentage than in June (43).
  • Approximately 15 percent of public schools in June required staff and students to wear masks inside the school, which was lower than both February and March.
  • Thirty-four percent of public schools used a Test-to-Stay program, which was a higher percentage than February (26).

Additional Information:

Parents, Students, and Staff Concerns

Data collection: March 2022

Key Findings

  • Eighty-nine percent of public schools reported that teachers have expressed concerns about getting their students to meet academic standards during the 2021–22 school year.
  • Eighty-two percent of public schools reported that parents voiced similar concerns about their students meeting academic standards.

Additional Information:

Student Behavior

Data collection: May 2022

Key Findings

  • More than 8 in 10 public schools have seen stunted behavioral and socioemotional development in their students because of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Minor offenses, such as tardiness and classroom disruptions, are the most frequently cited illicit behaviors that have increased in part due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Additional Information:

Summer Programs

Select a focal year: 2022 - 2023 school year | 2021 - 2022 school year

2022–23 School Year

Data Collection: September 2022

Key Findings

  • Sixty-nine percent of public schools reported that they required certain students to attend summer school.
  • Of schools reporting requiring summer school for certain students, thirty-four percent included high-dosage tutoring.
  • Approximately three-quarters of public schools reported they will offer learning and enrichment programs this summer.

Additional Information:

Technology

Data collection: August 2022

Key Findings

  • Ninety-four percent of public schools reporting providing digital device to students who need them.
  • Forty-five percent of public schools reported providing internet access to students who need it at home, and 56 percent reported providing internet to students at locations other than their home.

Additional Information:

— Not available.

† Not applicable.

# Rounds to zero.

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation is between 30 and 50, which indicates that the standard error for this estimate is 30 to 50 percent of the estimate's value.

‡ Reporting standards not met.

* Significantly different (p < .05) from current month.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, School Pulse Panel 2021–22 and 2022–23.

New! School Pulse Panel data on Outlying Area Public Schools

A universe collection of public schools in the U.S. Outlying Areas - American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands - was incorporated into the SPP beginning in August 2022. A total of 115 eligible public schools were invited to participate in the panel. Estimates have been weighted and adjusted for non-response. Data are experimental. Download results for U.S. Outlying Areas from August, September and October.

About the School Pulse Panel Data Collection

Approximately 2,400 public elementary, middle, high, and combined-grade schools were sampled for the monthly data collection. While the results presented in the dashboard have been weighted and adjusted for non-response, these experimental data should be interpreted with caution. Experimental data may not meet all NCES quality standards. The dashboard does not provide results on all survey questions. See the full set of surveys administered each month for more information. Download the complete data file to see results for which enough responses were collected.

Results on this dashboard are disaggregated by the following reporting groups:

  • Region: Defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, the reported region categories are Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Information is from the 2018–19 Common Core of Data (CCD).
  • Locale: Reported as the following mutually exclusive categories: city, suburb, town, and rural. Information is from the 2018–19 Common Core of Data (CCD).
  • School level: Reported as the following mutually exclusive categories: elementary, middle/other, and high/secondary. Information is from the 2018–19 Common Core of Data (CCD).
  • School size: The school size is based on student enrollment information. Reported categories are 0–299, 300–499, 500–999, and greater than or equal to 1000. Information is from the 2018–19 Common Core of Data (CCD).
  • Poverty: The Income-to-Poverty ratio (IPR) for the neighborhood surrounding the school location is used to distinguish schools in high- and low-poverty neighborhoods. The IPR estimates come from NCES's EDGE School Neighborhood Poverty Estimates. The IPR is the percentage of family income that is above or below the federal poverty threshold set for the family's size and structure and is calculated for the neighborhood surrounding the school building. It ranges from 0 to 999, where lower IPR values indicate a greater degree of poverty. A family with income at the poverty threshold has an IPR value of 100. In this analysis, IPR values of 200 or lower represent schools in high–poverty neighborhoods; IPR values greater than 200 represent schools in low–poverty neighborhoods.
  • Race/ethnicity: The school race/ethnicity demographics are reported as mutually exclusive categories by the percentage of students who are not Black, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Two or More Races. Information is from the 2018–19 Common Core of Data (CCD).
TOPIC DATA COLLECTIONS RELEASE DATES
AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS September 2022 November 3, 2022
ABSENTEEISM May 2022 July 6, 2022
COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS August 2022 September 27, 2022
FOOD AND NUTRITION March 2022, October 2022 December 6, 2022
LEARNING MODES January–June 2022 and September, October 2022 December 6, 2022
LEARNING RECOVERY June 2022 August 2, 2022
MENTAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING April 2022 May 31, 2022
MITIGATION STRATEGIES February, March, June 2022 March 29, 2022
PARENT, STUDENT, AND STAFF CONCERNS March 2022 April 21, 2022
QUARANTINE January–June 2022 and September 2022, October 2022 December 6, 2022
STAFFING January, June, August, and October 2022 December 6, 2022
STUDENT BEHAVIOR May 2022 July 6, 2022
SUMMER PROGRAMS June and September 2022 November 3, 2022
SUPPLY CHAIN October 2022 December 6, 2022
TECHNOLOGY August 2022 September 27, 2022