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IES Grant

Title: Optimizing Resistance to Forgetting
Center: NCER Year: 2002
Principal Investigator: Pashler, Harold E. Awardee: University of California, San Diego
Program: Cognition and Student Learning      [Program Details]
Award Period: 2 years Award Amount: $500,000
Type: Exploration Award Number: R305H020061

This study looks at ways to extend basic research on memory beyond the laboratory setting in order to evaluate highly effective strategies that can be used to optimize the use of study time and improve students' ability to retain information.

Related Grants:
Optimizing Resistance to Forgetting (R305H040108)
Harnessing Retrieval Practice to Enhance Learning in Diverse Domains (R305B070537)
Interleaved Mathematics Practice (R305A110517)
An Efficacy Study of Interleaved Mathematics Practice (R305A160263)


Journal article, monograph, or newsletter

Cepeda, N., Coburn, N., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J., Mozer, M., and Pashler, H. (2009). Optimizing Distributed Practice: Theoretical Analysis and Practical Implications. Experimental Psychology, 56(4): 236–246.

Cepeda, N., Vul, E., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J., and Pashler, H. (2008). Spacing Effects in Learning: A Temporal Ridgeline of Optimal Retention. Psychological Science, 19: 1095–1102.

Cepeda, N.J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J.T., and Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed Practice in Verbal Recall Tasks: A Review and Quantitative Synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2): 354–380.

Kang, S.H.K., Pashler, H., Cepeda, N.J., Rohrer, D., Carpenter, S.K., and Mozer, M.C. (2011). Does Incorrect Guessing Impair Fact Learning?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(1): 48–59.

Kang, S.K., McDaniel, M.A., and Pashler, H. (2011). Effects of Testing on Learning of Functions. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 18(5): 998–1005

Mozer, M.C., Pashler, H., and Homaei, H. (2008). Optimal Predictions in Everyday Cognition: The Wisdom of Individuals or Crowds?. Cognitive Science, 32(7): 1133–1147.

Pashler, H., Cepeda, N.J., Wixted, J.T., and Rohrer, D. (2005). When Does Feedback Facilitate Learning of Words?. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(1): 3–8.

Pashler, H., Zarow, G., and Triplett, B. (2003). Is Temporal Spacing of Tests Helpful Even When it Inflates Error Rates?. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29(6): 1051–1057.

Rohrer, D. (2009). The Effects of Spacing and Mixing Practice Problems. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 40(1): 4–17.

Rohrer, D., and Taylor, K. (2006). The Effects of Overlearning and Distributed Practice on the Retention of Mathematics Knowledge. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(9): 1209–1224.

Rohrer, D., Taylor, K., Pashler, H., Wixted, J.T., and Cepeda, N.J. (2005). The Effect of Overlearning on Long-Term Retention. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19(3): 361–374.

Vul, E., and Pashler, H. (2007). Incubation Benefits Only After People Have Been Misdirected. Memory and Cognition, 35(4): 701–710.

Vul, E., and Pashler, H. (2008). Measuring the Crowd Within: Probabilistic Representations Within Individuals. Psychological Science, 19(7): 645–647.

Vul, E., Harris, C., Winkielman, P., and Pashler, H. (2009). Puzzlingly High Correlations in fMRI Studies of Emotion, Personality, and Social Cognition. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(3): 274–290.