|Title:||Double Check: A Cultural Proficiency and Student Engagement Model|
|Principal Investigator:||Bradshaw, Catherine||Awardee:||Johns Hopkins University|
|Program:||Social and Behavioral Outcomes to Support Learning [Program Details]|
|Award Period:||5/1/11–4/30/14||Award Amount:||$1,676,576|
|Goal:||Development and Innovation||Award Number:||R324A110107|
Purpose: Research consistently finds that minority students are overrepresented in special education, disciplinary referrals, and behavioral suspensions. There is a need to address cultural factors as possible antecedents of problem behaviors. The research team will develop and pilot test Double Check, an intervention to reduce the overrepresentation of minority students in special education and disciplinary actions. Double Check is a model aimed at promoting cultural proficiency and student engagement. The intervention includes data-based decision-making and professional development at the school level and coaching for classroom teachers. It focuses on the use of culturally responsive teaching, classroom management, and student engagement strategies.
Project Activities: The project involves three phases, including development of the intervention materials and procedures, feasibility testing, and a pilot test of the program to determine its promise for improving educational outcomes. Data from focus group participants (including teachers, administrators, parents, and youth in grades 5–8) and advisory board members (content experts, practitioners, and community members) will be used to continually review, critique, and revise the intervention model. This iterative development process includes implementing the model and refining it based on feedback as well as student behavioral and academic data. The research team will also collect data to track intervention fidelity. The pilot study will examine the promise of the program, including the overall impact on special education referrals, discipline data, achievement, observations of teacher and student behavior, student engagement, teacher self-reports of attitude and behavior change, and student reports of school climate and engagement.
Products: Products include a fully developed version of Double Check and published reports and presentations on its feasibility and promise.
Setting: The project will take place in public elementary and middle schools in Maryland.
Population: Students and teachers in 10 elementary and 10 middle schools will participate.
Intervention: The intervention promotes data-based decision-making, professional development on cultural proficiency, and coaching in culturally sensitive classroom management and student engagement strategies. The program will integrate the Double Check professional development series with the core infrastructure provided by the school-wide, team-based management and student data system (Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports) and the classroom management coaching system (Classroom Check-Up). The purpose of this program is to increase the use of culturally responsive teaching and classroom management strategies.
Research Design and Methods: A continuous, iterative, mixed-methods research design involving observations and feedback from multiple stakeholders (teachers, administrators, parents, and youth) and advisory board members will be used to develop and refine the Double Check program during the first two years of the project. For the pilot study, a pre-post comparison design with a set of matched comparison schools will be used to test the promise of the program for impacting special education referrals, discipline data, achievement, observations of teacher and student behavior, student engagement, school climate, and teacher reports of efficacy and cultural proficiency. The research team will also examine variation in these data by student race and ethnicity.
Key Measures: Key measures include a variety of fidelity measures for each component of Double Check. School staff outcomes will be assessed through observational measures and self-report measures of cultural proficiency, self-efficacy, and teacher burnout. Student demographic, behavioral and academic school records will be collected. Report of school climate will be assessed with the School Development Program School Climate Survey. Other aspects of school functioning (e.g., principal leadership, relationships among staff) will be assessed with the Organizational Health Inventory.
Data Analytic Strategy: A variety of qualitative and quantitative (descriptive, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical linear modeling) analyses will be conducted on the implementation and outcome data to demonstrate feasibility and promise.
Control Condition: For the pilot test, the research team will identify a set of matched comparison SW-PBIS schools with which to contrast the school records data. These schools will not formally enroll in the project, as only publically available data and school records data will be obtained on those schools.
Publications from this project:
Hershfeldt, P., Rosenberg, M., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2011). Function-based thinking: A systematic way of thinking about function and its role in changing student behavior problems. Beyond Behavior, 19 (3), 12–21.
Bottiani, J. H., Bradshaw, C.P., Rosenberg, M. S., Hershfeldt, P.A., Pell, K. L., & Debnam, K.J. (2012). Applying Double Check to response to intervention: Culturally responsive practices for learning disabilities. Insight on learning disabilities: Prevailing theories to validated practices, 9 (1), 93–107.
Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E., Bloom, J., Barrett, S., Hershfeldt, P., Alexander, A., McKenna, M., Chafin, A. E., & Leaf, P. (2012). A state-wide collaboration to promote safe and supportive schools: The PBIS Maryland initiative. Administration and policy in mental health and mental health services research, 39 (4), 225–237. doi:10.1007/s10488–011–0384–6
Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Goldweber, A., Rosenberg, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Integrating School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports with tier 2 coaching to student support teams: The PBISplus model. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5 (3), 177–193.
Debnam, K. J., Pas, E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2012). Secondary and tertiary support systems in schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: A preliminary descriptive analysis. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 142–152. doi:10.1177/1098300712436844
Hershfeldt, P.A., Pell, K. Sechrest, R., Pas, E.T., & Bradshaw, C.P. (2012). Lessons learned coaching teachers in behavior management. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 22, 280–299.
McLeskey, J., Rosenberg, M. S., & Westling, D. (2013). Inclusion: Effective practices for all students (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
Pas, E. T., & Newman, D. L. (2013). Teacher mentoring, coaching, and consultation. In J. A. C. Hattie & E. M. Anderman (Eds.), International handbook of student achievement (pp. 152–154). New York, NY: Routledge Publishing Company.
Bottiani, J. H., Bradshaw, C. P., Mendelson, T. (2014). Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: The role of school organizational health and staff burnout. Journal of School Psychology, 52, 567–582. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2014.09.003
Bradshaw, C. P., Debnam, K. D., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Pas, E. T., Hershfeldt, P., Alexander, A., Barrett, S., & Leaf, P. J. (2014). Maryland's evolving system of social, emotional, and behavioral interventions in the public schools: The Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Project. Adolescent Psychiatry, 4, 194–206, doi: 10.2174/221067660403140912163120.
Pas, E.T., Bradshaw, C.P., & Cash, A. (2014). Coaching classroom-based preventive interventions. In M. Weist, N. Lever, C. Bradshaw, & J. Owens (Eds.), Handbook of School Mental Health, Second Edition (pp. 255–268). New York, NY: Springer.
Debnam, K. J., Pas, E. T., Bottiani, J., Cash, A., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). An examination of the association between observed and self-reported culturally responsive teaching practices. Psychology in the Schools, 52, 533–548. doi: 10.1002/pits.21845
Pas, E. T., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). Dissemination of evidence-based prevention programs. In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent drug use prevention: Research, intervention strategies, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pas, E. T., Cash, A. H., O'Brennan, L., Debnam, K., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). Profiles of high school student behavior in the classroom: Associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition. Journal of School Psychology, 53 (2), 137–148. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2014.12.005