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IES Grant

Title: Double Check: A Cultural Proficiency and Student Engagement Model
Center: NCSER Year: 2011
Principal Investigator: Bradshaw, Catherine Awardee: Johns Hopkins University
Program: Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Competence      [Program Details]
Award Period: 5/1/11 – 4/30/14 Award Amount: $1,676,576
Type: Development and Innovation Award Number: R324A110107

Purpose: Research consistently finds that minority students are overrepresented in special education, disciplinary referrals, and behavioral suspensions. There is a need to address cultural factors as possible antecedents of problem behaviors. The research team will develop and pilot test Double Check, an intervention to reduce the overrepresentation of minority students in special education and disciplinary actions. Double Check is a model aimed at promoting cultural proficiency and student engagement. The intervention includes data-based decision-making and professional development at the school level and coaching for classroom teachers. It focuses on the use of culturally responsive teaching, classroom management, and student engagement strategies.

Project Activities: The project involves three phases, including development of the intervention materials and procedures, feasibility testing, and a pilot test of the program to determine its promise for improving educational outcomes. Data from focus group participants (including teachers, administrators, parents, and youth in grades 5–8) and advisory board members (content experts, practitioners, and community members) will be used to continually review, critique, and revise the intervention model. This iterative development process includes implementing the model and refining it based on feedback as well as student behavioral and academic data. The research team will also collect data to track intervention fidelity. The pilot study will examine the promise of the program, including the overall impact on special education referrals, discipline data, achievement, observations of teacher and student behavior, student engagement, teacher self-reports of attitude and behavior change, and student reports of school climate and engagement.

Products: Products include a fully developed version of Double Check and published reports and presentations on its feasibility and promise.

Structured Abstract

Setting: The project will take place in public elementary and middle schools in Maryland.

Population: Students and teachers in 10 elementary and 10 middle schools will participate.

Intervention: The intervention promotes data-based decision-making, professional development on cultural proficiency, and coaching in culturally sensitive classroom management and student engagement strategies. The program will integrate the Double Check professional development series with the core infrastructure provided by the school-wide, team-based management and student data system (Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports) and the classroom management coaching system (Classroom Check-Up). The purpose of this program is to increase the use of culturally responsive teaching and classroom management strategies.

Research Design and Methods: A continuous, iterative, mixed-methods research design involving observations and feedback from multiple stakeholders (teachers, administrators, parents, and youth) and advisory board members will be used to develop and refine the Double Check program during the first two years of the project. For the pilot study, a pre-post comparison design with a set of matched comparison schools will be used to test the promise of the program for impacting special education referrals, discipline data, achievement, observations of teacher and student behavior, student engagement, school climate, and teacher reports of efficacy and cultural proficiency. The research team will also examine variation in these data by student race and ethnicity.

Key Measures: Key measures include a variety of fidelity measures for each component of Double Check. School staff outcomes will be assessed through observational measures and self-report measures of cultural proficiency, self-efficacy, and teacher burnout. Student demographic, behavioral and academic school records will be collected. Report of school climate will be assessed with the School Development Program School Climate Survey. Other aspects of school functioning (e.g., principal leadership, relationships among staff) will be assessed with the Organizational Health Inventory.

Data Analytic Strategy: A variety of qualitative and quantitative (descriptive, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical linear modeling) analyses will be conducted on the implementation and outcome data to demonstrate feasibility and promise.

Control Condition: For the pilot test, the research team will identify a set of matched comparison SW-PBIS schools with which to contrast the school records data. These schools will not formally enroll in the project, as only publically available data and school records data will be obtained on those schools.

Related IES Projects: Examining Variation in the Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) (R305A090307)

Products and Publications

Book chapter

Pas, E.T., and Bradshaw, C.P. (2015). Dissemination of Evidence-Based Prevention Programs: The Broad Picture. In L.M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of Adolescent Drug use Prevention: Research, Intervention Strategies, and Practice (pp. 527–540). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/14550–030

Pas, E.T., and Newman, D.L. (2013). Teacher Mentoring, Coaching, and Consultation. In J.A.C. Hattie, and E.M. Anderman (Eds.), International Handbook of Student Achievement (pp. 152–154). New York: Routledge Publishing Company.

Book chapter, edition specified

Pas, E.T., Bradshaw, C.P., and Cash, A. (2014). Coaching Classroom-Based Preventive Interventions. In M. Weist, N. Lever, C. Bradshaw, and J. Owens (Eds.), Handbook of School Mental Health (2nd ed., pp. 255–267). New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978–1–4614–7624–5_19

Book, edition specified

McLeskey, J., Rosenberg, M.S., and Westling, D. (2013). Inclusion: Effective Practices for All Students. (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson.

Journal article, monograph, or newsletter

Bottiani, J., Bradshaw, C.P., and Mendelson, T. (2014). Promoting an Equitable and Supportive School Climate in High Schools: The Role of School Organizational Health and Staff Burnout. Journal of School Psychology, 52(6): 567–582. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2014.09.003

Bottiani, J.H., Bradshaw, C.P., Rosenberg, M.S., Hershfeldt, P.A., Pell, K.L., and Debnam, K.J. (2012). Applying Double Check to Response to Intervention: Culturally Responsive Practices for Students With Learning Disabilities. Insights on Learning Disabilities: From Prevailing Theories to Validated Practices, 9(1): 93–107.

Bradshaw, C.P., Debnam, K.D., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Pas, E.T., Hershfeldt, P., Alexander, A., Barrett, S., and Leaf, P.J. (2014). Maryland's Evolving System of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Interventions in Public Schools: The Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Project. Adolescent Psychiatry, 4(3): 194–206. doi:10.2174/221067660403140912163120

Bradshaw, C.P., Pas, E., Barrett, S., Bloom, J., Hershfeldt, P., Alexander, A., McKenna, M., and Leaf, P. (2012). A State-Wide Partnership to Promote Safe and Supportive Schools: The PBIS Maryland Initiative. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39(4): 225–237. doi:10.1007/s10488–011–0384–6

Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Goldweber, A., Rosenberg, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Integrating School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports with tier 2 coaching to student support teams: The PBISplus model. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5 (3), 177–193.

Debnam, K., Cash, A., Pas, E., Bottiani, J., and Bradshaw, C.P. (2015). An Examination of the Association Between Observed and Self-Reported Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices. Psychology in the Schools, 52(6): 533–548. doi:10.1002/pits.21845

Debnam, K.J., Johnson, S.L., Waasdorp, T.E., and Bradshaw, C.P. (2014). Equity, Connection, and Engagement in the School Context to Promote Positive Youth Development. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(3): 447–459. doi:10.1111/jora.12083

Debnam, K. J., Pas, E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2012). Secondary and tertiary support systems in schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: A preliminary descriptive analysis. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 142–152. doi:10.1177/1098300712436844

Goldweber, A., Waasdorp, T.E., and Bradshaw, C.P. (2013). Examining Associations Between Race, Urbanicity, and Patterns of Bullying Involvement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(2): 206–219. doi:10.1007/s10964–012–9843–y

Hershfeldt, P., Rosenberg, M., and Bradshaw, C.P. (2011). Function-Based Thinking: A Systematic way of Thinking About Function and its Role in Changing Student Behavior Problems. Beyond Behavior, 19(3): 12–21.

Hershfeldt, P.A., Pell, K. Sechrest, R., Pas, E.T., and Bradshaw, C.P. (2012). Lessons Learned Coaching Teachers in Behavior Management: The PBIS "Plus" Coaching Model. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 22(4): 280–299. doi:10.1080/10474412.2012.731293 Full text

Pas, E.T., Cash, A.H., O'Brennan, L., Debnam, K., and Bradshaw, C.P. (2015). Profiles of classroom Behavior in High Schools: Associations With Teacher Behavior Management Strategies and Classroom Composition. Journal of School Psychology, 53(2): 137–148. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2014.12.005