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IES Grant

Title: Response Ratio Effect Sizes for Single-Case Designs with Behavioral Outcome Measures
Center: NCER Year: 2016
Principal Investigator: Pustejovsky, James Awardee: University of Texas, Austin
Program: Statistical and Research Methodology in Education–Early Career      [Program Details]
Award Period: 2 years (8/1/2016 –7/31/2018) Award Amount: $199,690
Type: Methodological Innovation Award Number: R305D160002

Purpose: This project developed models and methods of estimating response ratio effect sizes in single-case designs. Current methods for response ratios make the assumption that outcomes are drawn independently from a process that is stationary in each phase, an assumption which is typically unrealistic when the observations are made repeatedly on the same individual. By elaborating an existing measurement model for behavioral observations, statistical models that can accommodate both serially-correlated observations and linear time trends were developed. The PI studied the implications of using response ratios by comparing results of meta-analyses using the new approaches and common effect size metrics.

Project Activities: The PI first programmed and conducted simulation studies using the R software package in order to compare multiple approaches to effect size estimation. He then conducted the meta-analyses of real data to provide an applied comparison of the new approaches to current practices. By the end of the project, he expected to have given presentations at national conferences attended by applied researchers, prepared manuscripts for publication in both methodological and applied journals, and developed user-friendly software and documentation for conducting the proposed methods in multiple platforms, including R and Stata.

Publications and Products


Journal article, monograph, or newsletter

Ledford, J. R., & Pustejovsky, J. E. (2023). Systematic review and meta-analysis of stay-play-talk interventions for improving social behaviors of young children. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 25(1), 65–77.

Pustejovsky, J. E. (2019). Procedural sensitivities of effect sizes for single-case designs with directly observed behavioral outcome measures. Psychological Methods, 24(2), 217.

Pustejovsky, J. E. (2017). Response Ratio Effect Sizes for Single-Case Designs with Behavioral Outcome Measures. AERA Online Paper Repository.

Pustejovsky, J.E. (2018). Using Response Ratios for Meta-Analyzing Single-Case Designs With Behavioral Outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 68, 99–112.

Pustejovsky, J. E., Swan, D. M., & English, K. W. (2019). An examination of measurement procedures and characteristics of baseline outcome data in single-case research. Behavior Modification, 0145445519864264.

Swan, D. M., & Pustejovsky, J. E. (2018). A gradual effects model for single-case designs. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 53(4), 574–593.

Wahman, C. L., Pustejovsky, J. E., Ostrosky, M. M., & Santos, R. M. (2022). Examining the effects of Social Stories™ on challenging behavior and prosocial skills in young children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 41(4), 267–279.

Zimmerman, K.N., Ledford, J.R., Severini, K.E., Pustejovsky, J.E., Barton, E.E., and Lloyd, B.P. (2018). Single-Case Synthesis Tools I: Comparing Tools to Evaluate SCD Quality and Rigor. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 79, 19–32.

Zimmerman, K.N., Pustejovsky, J.E., Ledford, J.R., Barton, E.E., Severini, K.E., and Lloyd, B.P. (2018). Single-Case Synthesis Tools II: Comparing Quantitative Outcome Measures. Research In Developmental Disabilities.