|Title:||Partnership to Study Dual Language Immersion in Utah|
|Principal Investigator:||Slater, Robert||Awardee:||American Councils for International Education|
|Program:||Researcher-Practitioner Partnerships in Education Research [Program Details]|
|Award Period:||2 years (7/1/2017-6/30/2019)||Award Amount:||$398,544|
|Type:||Researcher-Practitioner Partnership||Award Number:||R305H170005|
Co-Principal Investigator: Johanna Watzinger-Tharp (University of Utah); Jennifer Steele (American University); Gregg Roberts (Utah State Board of Education)
Partner Institutions: American Councils Research Center (American Councils for International Education), Utah State Board of Education, University of Utah, American University.
Purpose: The purpose of this two-year grant is to have a partnership that will work with data to assess the causal effects of immersion program participation on student achievement. Dual language immersion (DLI) refers to programs in which students receive general academic instruction in two languages beginning in the early grades. In Utah, DLI programs come in two forms: two-way programs, in which at least a third of the students in a classroom are native speakers of each of the two classroom languages (here, English and a "target" language), and one-way programs, in which most students are native speakers of English immersed half-time in a "target" language. Both program types aim to graduate students who are bilingual and biliterate. In 2009, Utah enacted legislation that awards schools $10,000 per grade level for adding or expanding their DLI programs. In response, DLI in Utah has grown from a handful of programs in 2008–09 to 138 programs serving more than 28,000 students in 2015-16. This researcher-practitioner partnership aims to study Utah's DLI expansion as it continues to unfold—including an assessment of its causal effects on students' academic achievement—and to shed new light on the mechanisms by which it yields those effects.
Partnership Activities: During this two-year grant, the partnership will work with extant data to assess the causal effects—overall and by key subgroups—of immersion program participation on student achievement. Although the majority of students in DLI in Utah are native English speakers, the partnership will also work, in particular, to describe English learners' (ELs') access to immersion education. It will also work on planning and instrument development for next-phase studies.
Setting: The research will incorporate all 41 districts in the state of Utah, 22 of which currently offer dual language immersion programs. In the 2015-16 academic year, Utah's public schools enrolled 633,896 students, 4.4% of whom were enrolled in dual language immersion programs.
Population/Sample: The study will use administrative data for all students who entered kindergarten in a Utah public school in the years 2004–05 through 2014-15—approximately 536,000 students. In 2014-15, Utah students were 76% white, 17% Hispanic, 3% Asian or Pacific Islander, 2% mixed race, 1% black, and 1% American Indian. Thirty-five percent were low-income; 11% received special education services; and 6% were English learners (ELs).
Data Analytic Strategy: The researchers will use an instrumental variables strategy to estimate the causal effect of DLI participation on student achievement, as well as differential effects of one-way and two-way programs for ELs versus native English speakers. District-by-year variation in access to first-grade DLI slots will provide plausibly causal identification. Student-level models will estimate achievement at each grade using district and year fixed-effect models that include controls for students' baseline characteristics.
Outcomes: This two-year partnership grant will lay the groundwork for future research, including studies of (1) DLI implementation practices statewide; (2) the relationship between implementation and school-level achievement effects; (3) teachers' relative effectiveness in immersion and non-immersion classrooms; (4) students' skill attainment in Utah's DLI target languages (Spanish, Chinese, French, Portuguese, and German); and (5) students' high school course-taking, completion, and college enrollment.