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Standards for Excellence in Education Research

Document treatment implementation and contrast

Last Modified: March 16, 2020


  • Did the researcher document the process by which the treatment was implemented, including:
    • change management approaches used to deploy the treatment;
    • how the treatment was integrated into related programs and practices; and
    • potential accelerants of, or barriers to, instantiating the treatment by researchers and practitioners?
  • Did the researcher measure the fidelity of an intervention's implementation?
  • Did the researcher document, and identify opportunities to learn from, adaptations of the intervention that were observed during implementation?
  • Did the researcher document the counterfactual condition(s), including measures of essential elements of the treatment contrast between participants in the treatment and control conditions as identified by an intervention's core components?

What We're Reading

Hamilton, G. & Scrivener, S. (2018). Measuring treatment contract in randomized controlled trials. MDRC Working Paper. Retrieved from

Weiss, M., Bloom H. S., & Brock, T. (2014). A conceptual framework for studying the sources of variation in program effects. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(3), 778-808.