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Document treatment implementation and contrast

SEER Standards

  • Researchers must document how, and the context within which, the treatment was implemented.
  • Researchers must document the counterfactual condition(s), including its context.
  • Researchers must measure the essential elements of the treatment contrast between the treatment and control conditions.
  • Researchers must measure the fidelity of an intervention's implementation.


  • Researchers should document, and identify opportunities to learn from, adaptations of the intervention that were observed during implementation.


What We're Reading

Hamilton, G. & Scrivener, S. (2018). Measuring treatment contrast in randomized controlled trials. MDRC Working Paper. Retrieved from

Lemons, C. J., Fuchs, D., Gilbert, J. K., & Fuchs, L. S. (2014). Evidence-based practices in a changing world: Reconsidering the counterfactual in education research. Educational Researcher, 43(5), 242–252.

Weiss, M., Bloom H. S., & Brock, T. (2014). A conceptual framework for studying the sources of variation in program effects. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(3), 778-808.

Last Modified: June 10, 2021