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REL Midwest Ask A REL Response


March 2020


What research is available on effective practices for increasing equity in science education at the community college level?


Following an established Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest protocol, we conducted a search for research reports, descriptive studies, and policy overviews on effective practices for increasing equity in science education at the community college level. In particular, we focused on identifying resources, including those for low-income and minority group students. For details on the databases and sources, keywords, and selection criteria used to create this response, please see the Methods section at the end of this memo.

Below, we share a sampling of the publicly accessible resources on this topic. References are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in order of relevance. The search conducted is not comprehensive; other relevant references and resources may exist. For each reference, we provide an abstract, excerpt, or summary written by the study’s author or publisher. We have not evaluated the quality of these references, but provide them for your information only.

Research References

Bahr, P. R., Jackson, G., McNaughtan, J., Oster, M., & Gross, J. (2017). Unrealized potential: Community college pathways to STEM baccalaureate degrees. Journal of Higher Education, 88(3), 430–478. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “Our understanding of community college pathways to baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) is remarkably incomplete, despite growing recognition of the sizeable role that community colleges stand to play in increasing the number of students who enter STEM baccalaureate programs, particularly underrepresented students. Here, we drew from data on nearly 3 million students to analyze participation in and navigation of the STEM transfer curriculum in community colleges, while focusing primarily on the fields of math, chemistry, and physics. We found that a large number of students enrolled in college-level STEM coursework, and many of these students were of demographic groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields. Yet, comparatively few students progressed into advanced STEM coursework. Moreover, the contribution of community colleges to resolving longstanding demographic inequities in STEM is constrained by pronounced gender and racial/ethnic differences in points of entry into the STEM curriculum, pathways through STEM, and manner of exit from STEM. As a result, much of the considerable potential of community colleges to improve STEM baccalaureate production and equity of opportunity in STEM remains largely unrealized at this point. We conclude with practical recommendations and a detailed research agenda to guide future inquiry on this subject.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Cohen, R., & Kelly, A. M. (2020). Mathematics as a factor in community college STEM performance, persistence, and degree attainment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 57(2), 279–307. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “Community colleges serve a vital role in the education of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors in the United States, however, most research to date on STEM pipeline persistence from academia to the workforce has focused on four-year colleges, which limits understanding of the potential of two-year pathways in diversifying STEM participation. One chronic issue is the vertical alignment of community college STEM education with workforce demands and advancement to baccalaureate institutions. This research builds upon prior work by exploring the initial mathematics enrollment and performance of STEM majors, and how this relates to demographic and socioeconomic variables and the likelihood of degree change from STEM to non-STEM disciplines, graduation and transfer rates, attrition from college, science performance, and credit production. This explanatory observational study employed multiple regression techniques to examine transcript data from four cohorts of community college STEM majors (n = 1,511) over 3 years of enrollment in an institution in the Northeast U.S. Results indicated that students who first enrolled in remedial mathematics courses experienced a higher likelihood of changing to non-STEM majors, greater attrition, lower credit production, weaker science performance, and lower rates of graduation and transfer to four-year colleges. Students who completed developmental mathematics courses failed algebra and trigonometry at a rate of 68%, indicating remediation coursework did not prepare most students for the mathematics required for science degrees. Students who qualified for advanced mathematics as their entry level course outperformed students who first took lower level classes. Demographic variables and socioeconomic status had limited predictive value for STEM-related outcomes. Results suggest that community college STEM majors may benefit from reconceptualized developmental curricula focused on essential skills for success in advanced mathematics and science, as well as clarity on transferable coursework and structured pathways to reach the milestones required for STEM degrees and careers.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Cooper, D., Rodriguez-Kiino, D., Scharper, A., Karandjeff, K., Chaplot, P., & Schiorring, E. (2014). Practically speaking: Community college practices that help (re)define student success. A practitioner primer. Sacramento, CA: Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “This primer introduces 23 practices designed to support students inside and outside of the classroom and increase their community college success. These case studies illustrate the five themes for effective student support that emerged from Student Support (Re)defined—a multi-year study performed by the Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group). Through Student Support (Re)defined, the RP Group conducted phone surveys and focus groups to ask almost 900 students from 13 California community colleges what supports their educational success. Findings from this research indicate that: (1) colleges need to foster students’ motivation; (2) colleges must teach students how to succeed in the postsecondary environment; (3) colleges need to structure support to ensure all six success factors are addressed; (4) colleges need to provide comprehensive support to historically underserved students to prevent the equity gap from growing; and (5) everyone has a role to play in supporting student achievement, but faculty must take the lead. This primer is not a research report. Rather, it offers a range of practical examples and aims to inspire concrete dialog about what community college practitioners can do to strengthen student support at the individual, program and institutional levels. Some practices offer simple ideas that can be readily pursued. Others are more complex, call for careful coordination and planning, and require a significant investment of time and resources. All practices are student-centered and either show potential for scaling and/or replication or are already successfully reaching significant numbers of learners. The RP Group selected these practices based on over 20 years of experience conducting research in the California community college system and drew on the research team and project advisory committee’s engagement with national initiatives such as the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence, Completion by Design, the Hewlett Leaders in Student Success Award and Excelencia in Education. Each case study includes a brief description of the practice’s purpose and design, a discussion of the participant experience, implementation support and challenges, and a consideration of scalability and sustainability.”

Hagedorn, L. S., & DuBray, D. (2010). Math and science success and nonsuccess: Journeys within the community college. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 16(1), 31–50. Retrieved from,60ff6e4162f9967b,06c868411220d5c6.html

From the abstract: “Many STEM-focused students begin their postsecondary journey at a community college. This manuscript uses transcript analysis blended with descriptive methods to trace the academic diversity of students enrolled in the Los Angeles Community College District. Patterns of success and nonsuccess with respect to the climb through developmental mathematics, time, course completion ratio, and grades disaggregated by gender and ethnicity are traced and reported for students expressing a desire for a STEM career. The study concludes that mathematics success is key to further success for STEM students. While the analysis found some differences by gender and ethnicity, the true diversity of the sample would be better described by differences in academic preparation for STEM.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Moriarty, M. A. (2007). Inclusive pedagogy: Teaching methodologies to reach diverse learners in science instruction. Equity & Excellence in Education, 40(3), 252–265. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the use of inclusive pedagogy by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty at three community colleges. The purpose was to identify barriers to the adoption of inclusive teaching methods for diverse learners and students with disabilities and to propose ways to break down these barriers. Two hundred and eleven community college STEM faculty members in Western Massachusetts were sent a questionnaire that was administered electronically, and 11 faculty members were interviewed, 9 of whom also were observed in the classroom. The most significant among the barriers reported were the lack of an inclusive mindset, lack of knowledge about pedagogy, high teaching loads, and lack of time for instructional development. Implications for practice and research are discussed.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Barriers and opportunities for 2-year and 4-year STEM degrees: Systemic change to support students’ diverse pathways. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “Nearly 40 percent of the students entering 2- and 4-year postsecondary institutions indicated their intention to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in 2012. But the barriers to students realizing their ambitions are reflected in the fact that about half of those with the intention to earn a STEM bachelor’s degree and more than two-thirds intending to earn a STEM associate’s degree fail to earn these degrees 4 to 6 years after their initial enrollment. Many of those who do obtain a degree take longer than the advertised length of the programs, thus raising the cost of their education. Are the STEM educational pathways any less efficient than for other fields of study? How might the losses be ‘stemmed’ and greater efficiencies realized? These questions and others are at the heart of this study. ‘Barriers and Opportunities for 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees’ reviews research on the roles that people, processes, and institutions play in 2-and 4-year STEM degree production. This study pays special attention to the factors that influence students’ decisions to enter, stay in, or leave STEM majors—quality of instruction, grading policies, course sequences, undergraduate learning environments, student supports, co-curricular activities, students’ general academic preparedness and competence in science, family background, and governmental and institutional policies that affect STEM educational pathways. Because many students do not take the traditional 4-year path to a STEM undergraduate degree, ‘Barriers and Opportunities’ describes several other common pathways and also reviews what happens to those who do not complete the journey to a degree. This book describes the major changes in student demographics; how students, view, value, and utilize programs of higher education; and how institutions can adapt to support successful student outcomes. In doing so, ‘Barriers and Opportunities’ questions whether definitions and characteristics of what constitutes success in STEM should change. As this book explores these issues, it identifies where further research is needed to build a system that works for all students who aspire to STEM degrees. The conclusions of this report lay out the steps that faculty, STEM departments, colleges and universities, professional societies, and others can take to improve STEM education for all students interested in a STEM degree.”

O’Hara, R. E., & Sparrow, B. (2019). A summer nudge campaign to motivate community college STEM students to reenroll. AERA Open, 5(3). Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “Despite growing economic opportunities in ‘middle-skills’ science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, the majority of community college STEM students leaves the STEM pipeline or withdraws from college altogether. We tested an intervention that addressed one reason why students abandon STEM: psychosocial barriers, including identity threats, a lack of belonging, and a mismatch between students’ values and those prevalent in STEM. Our intervention leveraged behavioral science (‘nudging’) strategies as part of a 7-week summer campaign to encourage reenrollment, delivered via text message to 1,367 randomly selected first-year students at three community colleges. The intervention increased overall fall reenrollment by 7 percentage points; the effect was primarily observed among STEM students (+10 percentage points) and students taking summer courses (+10 percentage points). Our results indicate that interventions that target psychosocial barriers experienced by community college STEM students can increase retention and should be considered alongside broader reforms.”

Parker, C., Morrell, C., Morrell, C., & Chang, L. (2016). Shifting understandings of community college faculty members: Results of an equity-focused professional development experience. Journal of Faculty Development, 30(3), 41–48. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study that examined the influence of a multi-stage, equity-focused professional development program on the beliefs and understandings about issues of equity and classroom practices among 28 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) community college faculty members. The authors describe how the beliefs and understandings of the faculty members shifted after each stage of the program. They found that, only after implementing professional development in their classroom practices, there was a statistically significant shift in faculty members’ understanding of seven of the nine constructs measured by the survey. The study reveals the need for community college faculty to implement research-informed professional development in the classroom.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Polnarieve, B. A., Jaafar, R., Hendrix, T., Morgan, H. P., Khethavath, P., & Idrissi, A. B. (2017). Nourishing STEM student success via a TEAM-based advisement model. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(6), 31–43. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “LaGuardia Community College is an international leader recognized for developing and successfully implementing initiatives and educating underserved diverse students. LaGuardia’s STEM students are holistically advised by a team of dedicated faculty and staff members from different departments and divisions. As an innovative approach to advisement, students are first connected to an advising team member in their discipline-based first-year seminar and consequently guided by other cross-institutional advisement team members to ensure their continued success. In this article, we share our policies, processes, and promising practices in advising STEM student at an urban public institution. We present arguments that address and support five pillars for student success: 1) the student matters, 2) supportive culture matters, 3) effective communication matters, 4) data matters, and, 5) clear pathways and effective advisement matters. Finally, we present empirical evidence that show positive results in terms of students’ retention. Specifically, there was an improvement in the actual Fall 2015 to 2016 return rate of STEM students, from 62.9% to 64.6%. Our scaled practice demonstrates the value of collaborative team-based advisement efforts as supported through professional development can improve community college STEM student persistence when the above five pillars are fully espoused by the institution.”

Rabitoy, E. R., Hoffman, J. L., & Person, D. R. (2015). Supplemental instruction: The effect of demographic and academic preparation variables on community college student academic achievement in STEM-related fields. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 14(3), 240–255. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “This study evaluated variables associated with academic preparation and student demographics as predictors of academic achievement through participation in supplemental instruction (SI) programs for community college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. The findings suggest a differential impact of SI outcome for students based on gender and ethnicity. Furthermore, the study underscores the importance of evaluating the influence of academic achievement and student demographic variables when considering the development of SI programs on community college campuses.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Rosenblum, I., & Kazis, R. (2014). Middle-skill STEM state policy framework. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “The sector of the economy frequently referred to as STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) is the subject of much national interest and debate. While there is general consensus across various stakeholders such as policymakers, educators, and industry that STEM education and careers are essential to maintaining an innovative and vibrant country, there are frequent and heated disputes: Are there labor shortages in STEM, either overall or in particular fields or regions? How should resources be targeted? What dimensions of the STEM agenda are most critical? Over the last year, Achieving the Dream and Jobs for the Future have focused on a specific segment of the STEM economy that has not been embroiled in those debates—it has, in fact, not received adequate attention until now. Achieving the Dream and Jobs for the Future have zeroed in on those STEM jobs that can be defined as ‘middle-skill,’ requiring less than a baccalaureate credential. Middle-skill STEM jobs represent an incredible intersection of economic opportunity for individuals from low income backgrounds and for labor markets with persistent and growing workforce needs. These jobs are far more plentiful than is generally understood, and they pay more than the typical jobs available to those with less than a Bachelor’s degree. To elevate the middle-skill STEM agenda and its urgency in national debates on both STEM education and postsecondary student success, and to articulate a set of policy targets and priorities for states that want to be more active in supporting middle-skill STEM pathways, Achieving the Dream and Jobs for the Future have created a Middle-Skill STEM State Policy Framework. It includes five major recommendations: (1) Ensure that STEM programs meet employer needs; (2) Improve math preparation and developmental education to boost student success; (3) Create new models that lead to degree attainment; (4) Improve data collection and data use to enhance transparency, accountability, effectiveness and equity; and (5) Encourage innovation and reward better outcomes for STEM students and the STEM workforce. This is a living document that will be refined over time as the national debate on middle-skill STEM jobs evolves and evidence mounts on effective policies and institutional strategies that improve outcomes for community college students.”

Smith, D. J. (2016). Operating in the middle: The experiences of African American female transfer students in STEM degree programs at HBCUs. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 40(12), 1025–1039. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “Increasing the representation of African American females is essential to ensure the United States (U.S.) remains a viable competitor in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) workforce. With minorities anticipated to represent half of the resident U.S population by 2050, fostering STEM talent among this population is vital. Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) educate a large population of African Americans in STEM, with a large representation of this population entering via the community college. Understanding the experiences of African American female transfer students in STEM from the community college to the HBCU is essential. Utilizing the interplay of the Undergraduate Socialization Theory and the Triple Quandary Theory, this study explores the experiences of African American female community college transfer students into HBCUs, with a particular focus on the community college experiences that impacted their successful transition into STEM degree programs at the HBCU. Implications are provided based on the overall results of this study.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Snyder, J., & Cudney, E. A. (2017). Retention models for STEM majors and alignment to community colleges: A review of the literature. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations & Research, 18(3), 48–57. Retrieved from Full text available from

From the ERIC abstract: “During the last decade, there have been numerous reports detailing the importance of increasing science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors in the United States. Simultaneously, an increasing number of studies are being developed to predict a student’s success and completion of a STEM degree, recognizing that retention is a significant issue for STEM majors. A majority of the studies focus on traditional college students that attend college directly after high school, which is no longer the model of the majority of college students. A growing number of students delay entry into college and do not enter through traditional routes. One of the growing entry points for STEM students is the community college or two-year institution. These institutions have grown in popularity due to tuition increases and lack of preparedness for traditional selective universities. As the need for more STEM majors and a diverse workforce increases, more research should be directed towards this growing pool of students. Retention models should investigate unique retention causation factors more thoroughly to address these STEM students and this pipeline. This research provides a systematic review of the literature on retention models for STEM education and provides a discussion of future opportunities to align predictive models with community colleges.”

Soricone, L., & Endel, B. (2019). Nudging to STEM success. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “The purpose of this implementation report is to help community college leaders, foundations, and public education policymakers understand the impact that nudges have on student success, especially for students from populations that typically have low rates of college completion. The promising results of the NTSS [Nudging to STEM Success] initiative reflect the opportunities that nudging offers, and they have important implications for future investments in and explorations of behavioral nudges as a way of fostering student success and advancing equity.”

Wang, X., Sun, N., Lee, S. Y., & Wagner, B. (2017). Does active learning contribute to transfer intent among 2-year college students beginning in STEM? Journal of Higher Education, 88(4), 593–618. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “This study explored whether and how beginning 2-year college students’ engagement in active learning within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) classrooms is related to their intent to transfer to a 4-year institution. Despite the potentially important role active learning experiences play in shaping 2-year college students’ intent to transfer upward, there is a dearth of research to investigate this relationship. To fill this gap, we explored the linkage between active learning and intent to transfer. In addition, we explored whether and how transfer self-efficacy may mediate this relationship. Based on survey data collected from a statewide sample of 1st-year 2-year college students beginning in STEM programs or courses and controlling for student entry characteristics and postsecondary factors, a path analysis of mediation revealed that active learning is directly related to transfer intent and exerts an indirect relationship through its positive influence on transfer self-efficacy.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Zamani-Gallaher, E. M., Yeo, H. T., Velez, A. L., Fox, H. L., & Samet, M. (2019). STEM completion at Hispanic-serving community colleges. Champaign, IL: Office of Community College Research and Leadership. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “The Hispanic-Serving Community Colleges STEM Pipelines (HSCC-STEM) study is a research project that explores the transitions to and through Hispanic-serving two-year institutions for underrepresented minoritized STEM students. This brief uncovers the most viable HSCC STEM pathways for Latinxs and other underrepresented minoritized students as well as which fields they are more likely to persist in and the promising practices at HSCCs that provide transfer pathways leading to further education—on ramps to STEM baccalaureates. This research brief focuses on STEM degrees conferred nationally by race and gender at three institutional types: HSCCs, which are two-year institutions with 25% or more Latinx student enrollment; emerging HSCCs, which are two-year institutions with 15% to 24% Latinx student enrollment; and non-HSCCs, which are institutions with less than 15% Latinx student enrollment.”

Zhang, Y. L. (2019). STEM choice, persistence, and attrition: A preliminary analysis of community college transfers and non-transfers at a four-year research university. Bryan, TX: Greater Texas Foundation. Retrieved from

From the introduction: “…this study focuses on community college transfers and their STEM choice, persistence, and attrition. It also compares the transfers with their non-transfer counterparts, who started at 4-year universities as freshmen, regarding their STEM entrance and departure. Tracking a cohort of undergraduate students enrolled in a public four-year university in North Texas, this paper intends to deepen understanding of transfer students’ entering into and departing from STEM fields of study. The following research questions were addressed:

  • What are the percentages of community college transfer students and non-transfers who choose to enter a STEM major? Are they different by disciplines? Which STEM majors were most popular among the transfers and non-transfers?
  • What are the percentages of community college transfer students and non-transfers who persist in STEM, leave STEM, and switch to a non-STEM major?
  • What are the characteristics of students who persist in STEM, leave STEM, and switch into a non-STEM major among transfers and non-transfers, respectively?
  • Do these students differ in their early academic performance at the four-year university?”

Zhang, Y. L., Adamuti-Trache, M., & Connolly, J. (2019). From community college attendants to baccalaureate recipients: A planned behavior model for transfer students in STEM fields of study. Journal of Higher Education, 90(3), 373–401. Retrieved from

From the ERIC abstract: “Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010), our study aims to understand how community college transfer students’ STEM degree attainment behavior is shaped by their beliefs, intentions, contextual factors and social-demographic characteristics. This study drew upon data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002). The sample includes 1,761 students who began postsecondary education at a 2-year institution and attended a 4-year university later in their academic career. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to develop a fully specified model of STEM baccalaureate degree attainment for the transfer students. The findings of the study highlight the significant impact of gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on STEM degree attainment. Additionally, we distinguished transfer students’ intention to pursue a STEM field of study from intention to obtain a bachelor’s degree and found both intentions had significant effects on STEM baccalaureate degree attainment. Finally, the study findings show that college variables, such as taking remedial math courses, college GPA, and student loans, have significant effects on STEM degree attainment.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.


Keywords and Search Strings

The following keywords and search strings were used to search the reference databases and other sources:

  • “Community colleges” “STEM curriculum”

  • “Community colleges” “STEM education”

  • “Community colleges” “STEM education” “African American students”

  • “Community colleges” “STEM education” “low income students”

  • “Community colleges” “STEM education” equity

  • Equity “community colleges” “science instruction”

  • Nudging to stem success

Databases and Search Engines

We searched ERIC for relevant resources. ERIC is a free online library of more than 1.6 million citations of education research sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). Additionally, we searched IES and Google Scholar.

Reference Search and Selection Criteria

When we were searching and reviewing resources, we considered the following criteria:

  • Date of the publication: References and resources published over the last 15 years, from 2005 to present, were included in the search and review.

  • Search priorities of reference sources: Search priority is given to study reports, briefs, and other documents that are published or reviewed by IES and other federal or federally funded organizations.

  • Methodology: We used the following methodological priorities/considerations in the review and selection of the references: (a) study types—randomized control trials, quasi-experiments, surveys, descriptive data analyses, literature reviews, policy briefs, and so forth, generally in this order, (b) target population, samples (e.g., representativeness of the target population, sample size, volunteered or randomly selected), study duration, and so forth, and (c) limitations, generalizability of the findings and conclusions, and so forth.
This memorandum is one in a series of quick-turnaround responses to specific questions posed by educational stakeholders in the Midwest Region (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin), which is served by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL Midwest) at American Institutes for Research. This memorandum was prepared by REL Midwest under a contract with the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES), Contract ED-IES-17-C-0007, administered by American Institutes for Research. Its content does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of IES or the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.